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Wechselwirkung zwischen Zellen Amöben und chemische Signalen.

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Präsentation zum Thema: "Wechselwirkung zwischen Zellen Amöben und chemische Signalen."—  Präsentation transkript:

1 Wechselwirkung zwischen Zellen Amöben und chemische Signalen

2 DICTY-a special amoeba Dictyostelium Discoideum Phagocytosis – they feed on soil bacteria Picture: © Ron Neumeyer - microimaging.ca Movie: © dictybase.org

3 Dicty Amoebae are protozoans, much larger than bacteria. Dicty live as single amoebae on soil surfaces where they eat bacteria and increase in number by fission. When the food becomes scarce, Dicty aggregate to form a multicellular organism. The goal of the starving cells is to get to another patch of soil, hopefully where there is plenty of food so a new colony can be formed.

4 Chemotaxis / Chemoattraction cells detect and migrate towards chemical signals up to 100,000 form a multi-cellular organism cAMP – cyclic adenosine 3,5 monophosphate Picture: © Wikipedia.org (GNU Encyclopedia) Movie: © G. Gerisch, Max-Planck-Institut fur Biochemie, Martinsried, Germany

5 Chemotaxis in microorganisms Dicty arent the only ones doing aggregation using chemotaxis –Gram negatives and plankton phototrophic bacteria use N-Acyl homoserine lactones (ASLs) as general signaling components. –In the sea, Plankton and bacteria aggregate to transparent exopolymer particles, the so-called sea snow.

6 Chemotaxis / Chemoattraction Digitized Dicty © D. Wessel and D. Soll, Unv. of Iowa Lapse: 18 seconds © K. Barisic, M. Ecke, C. Heizer, M. Maniak, M. Westphal, R. Albrecht, G. Gerisch, / Max-Planck-Institut fur Biochemie / Martinsried, Germany.

7 Dicty aggregation as a model for multicellular processes Chemotaxis and signal transduction by chemoattractant receptors play a key role in – Inflammation and arthritis –Asthma –Axon guidance –Sperm movement.

8 Differentiation Distinct phenotypes –Spore cells –Stalk cells Movie: © R. Chisholm, Northwestern University.

9 Differentiation The amoebae cooperate and form a fruiting body made up of a mass of spore cells held off the ground by a thin column of stalk cells. The spore cells can then be dispersed by wind or water to another area where hopefully conditions are better and a new colony can form. This can serve as a model for: –Embryogenesis –Cell-type determination and cell sorting –Pattern formation

10 Biofilms in infections Bacteria aggregate and form a hydrated matrix of polysaccharide and protein. This slimy layer is known as biofilm. They are present in: –Implanted devices –Periodontitis –Chronic Lung Infection –Catheter infection

11 Resistance to antibiotics Usual mechanisms of resistance in bacteria are: –Plasmids –Transposons –Mutations. Biofilms employ other mechanisms. In vitro, biofilms survive antibiotic concentrations –100x or even –1000x the minimum inhibitory concentration for bacteria in suspension

12 Resistance to antibiotics Figure: © Philip S. Stewart and J. William Costerton / Center for Biofilm Engineering / Montana State University

13 Ficks Law of Diffusion

14 Erregbares Medium mit Diffusion (Modell I) Approximiere Zellen als zelluläre Automaten Zellen zufällig verteilt auf Gitter mit Dichte ρ Zustände: –0: Ruhezustand –1: Erregt –2: Refraktär

15 Zellcyclus im Modell I 1 2 0 falls c > c T nach τ Zeiteinheiten nach t R Zeiteinheiten falls c < c T τ : Dauer der Erregung t R : Refraktärzeit c : cAMP Konzentration an der Zelle c T : Erregungs- schwellenwert

16 Diffusion Standard- Diffusionsgleichung mit Abbau

17 Travelling Wave Annahme Welle wandert mit konstanter Geschwindigkeit unter Beibehaltung der Form =>

18 Lösung der Gleichung

19 Matlab Model 1 – Feste Zellen – cAMP wird produziert, difundiert und abgebaut

20 Analytical solution using mean-field theory The equation with production by the cells Travelling wave

21 Analytical solution to mean- field - Variables =cell packing density c=cAMP amount released per cell c T =minimum exciting conc. =degradation factor (Abbau) =time cells remain excited t R =time cells remain refractory

22 Analytical solution to mean-field There are three regions z>0 - <z<0 z<-

23 Wave velocity vs c =0.015

24 Solutions to mean-field With A=1E-10 and v=3.5

25 Modellierung der Aggregation (Modell 2) Biologisches Vorbild: –Aggregationsphase bei Dictyostelium –Zellen wandern in Richtung höherer cAMP Konzentration –Ausprägung netzartiger Strukturen

26 Modellierung der Aggregation Automatenmodell –nur erregte Zellen können wandern –Zelle kann nur einmal pro Erregungsphase wandern –Zelle misst [cAMP] Gradient zu Nachbarfeldern => wandere wenn Δc > c T

27 Matlab Model 2 – Sich bewegende Zellen – cAMP wird produziert, difundiert und abgebaut

28 Dicty Waves – actual microscope images Lapse: 36 seconds © F. Siegert and C. J. Weijer, J. Cell Sci. 93, 325-335 (1989). Lapse: 10 seconds © F. Siegert and C. J. Weijer, J. Cell Sci. 93, 325-335 (1989).

29 Further models Because diffusion happens so fast, some question whether it is really possible for the cell to trace the gradient. It has been proposed that when Dicty first detects cAMP on a receptor, all other receptors on the cell become refractory. This way, Dicty knows where cAMP came from.

30 Take-Home Message Microorganisms have communication and are not as primitive as they look. Complex behavior like spirals and streams can be described with simple rules… …but correct parameters are not easy to choose.

31 Bibliography "From Cells to Societies – The Games of Life –A.S. Mikhailov, V. Calenbuhr, Sections 2.1, 2.2 Mathematical Biology-Spatial Models and Biomedical Applications –Murray, J.D., University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA / Pp. 436-439 Pattern formation in Dictyostelium via the dynamics of cooperative biological entities –David A Kessler and Herbert Levine, Physical Review E, Vol 48 No. 6 December 1993, Pp. 4801-4804. Physics meets biology: Bridging the culture gap –Nature 419, 244 - 246 (2002); doi:10.1038/419244a –19 September 2002 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(01)05321-1 New Signaling Compounds for Quorum Sensing or how Bacteria talk to each other - © 2003 Sigma-Aldrich Co –http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/Brands/Fluka___Riedel_Home/Bioscience/Microbi ology/Signaling_Compounds.htmlhttp://www.sigmaaldrich.com/Brands/Fluka___Riedel_Home/Bioscience/Microbi ology/Signaling_Compounds.html Antibiotic resistance of bacteria in biofilms –Philip S. Stewart and J. William Costerton - The Lancet & Center for Biofilm Engineering and Department of Chemical Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717-3980, USA Dimensional Strategies and the Minimization Problem: Barrier-Avoiding Algorithms –Daniel B. Faken, A. F. Voter, David L. Freeman, and J. D. Doll - Journal of Physical Chemistry A pp 9521 - 9526; (Article) DOI: 10.1021/jp9920949

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