5Sevilla Strategie 1995 New Functions of Biosphere Reserves model region for sustainable development, involvement of local populationpreserving ecosystems, scenery, species of flora and fauna and their genetic heritageencouraging social and economic development while respecting nature and the local cultureresearch and surveys, continuous observation of the environment, training and education for sustainability
6Madrid Action Plan, Madrid Declaration(2008) Progress since SevilleChecklist to adopt BR´s to the challenges of the 21. century:Climate changeProvision of ecosystem servicesUrbanization as a principal driver for ecosystem-wide pressures
7Requirements of the UNESCO the surface area of the reserves should be sufficiently large to allow it to carry out the functions of a biosphere reserverepresentative ecosystems, important for the biological diversitypotential for development to a model region for sustainable developmentzonation in core area, buffer zone, transition areamanagement and mechanisms to support the people in developing their biosphere reserve
8Benefits and Opportunities of Biosphere Reserves Support for policy makers in finding effective ways to strike a balance between development and conservationSites to explore and demonstrate approaches to conservation and sustainable development providing lessons which can be applied elswhereBringing together a broad range of actors to work cooperatively towards common objectives
9553 Biosphere Reserves in 107 Countries Worldwide Biosphere-Network553 Biosphere Reserves in 107 Countries
11Comparison of three Austrian BR´s BR Wienerwald58 municipalitieshectaresinhabitants2.37 inhabitants/ha8 employeesNP Nockberge4 municipalitieshectaresinhabitants0.26 inhabitants/ha13 employeesBR Großes Walsertal6 municipalitieshectares3.366 inhabitants0.18 inhabitants/ha3 part-time employeesJungmeier, M., Paul-Horn, I., et al., Partizipationsprozesse in Biosphärenparks, 2009,2.2., Selected Results, pp. 14
15Differences between a Biosphere Reserve and a National Park cat Differences between a Biosphere Reserve and a National Park cat. II, IUCNBiosphere Reserveconservation of cultivated landscapeby sustainable cultivationat least 3 % Core areatesselated zonationNature conservation including men and economyNational Parkconservation of natural areasby nature conservationat least 75 % core areacoherent zonationNature conservation excluding men
16Biosphere Reserve Wienerwald Area: km2 Provinces: Vienna & Lower Austria 51 Communities in Lower Austria 7 Districts of the City of Vienna Population aboutin the BR Region
18Organisation Chart - Biosphärenpark Wienerwald General AssemblySupervisory BoardManaging DirectorRepresentation, Strategy, Coordination, Staff, BudgetWBR Coordination UnitViennaRegionalAdvisory BoardParticipatoryAdvisory BoardScientificAdvisory BoardAdministration,SecretariatAccountancy, Archives, EDPInternal Professional TrainingCommunication,EducationBasic Principles,ResearchNatural Habitat ManagementRegional Development,CooperationsPublic Relations,Media, PressResearch CoordinationForest / ForestryEnterprisesInternationalCooperationResearch ProgrammesOpen Space/AgricultureRegional Corporations,OrganisationsThe regional advisory board is required by the BR treaty between the provinces. It is an assembly of the Mayors of the communities in lower austria and the heads of the districts of the city of vienna, their deputies and at the most 56 more They meet once or twice a year for information and dicussion of the most pressing issues. To get reasonable working groups a smaller board, of 17 communities of LA and 4 districts of Vienna has been set up. This meets at least twice a year, depending on the needs.The particpatory board consists of the most important stakeholders like land owners or NGO´s. The coordinator in the city of Vienna coordinates the departments of the city for the tasks related to the BR.EducationNature ProtectionTourism / RecreationVisitor ManagementInfo-CentersWildlife ManagementClimate / EnergyGISSocial Sustainability
19Biosphere Reserve Wienerwald - Zoning Outer transition areaSpace for living, economy, recreation, sustainable projectsBuffer zones„best practice“examples of cultural landscape, focusing on conservation of biodiversityCore areasNature conservation and researchOuter transition areaBuffer zoneCore area
20Core Areas Entwicklungszone Outer transition area Buffer zones Nature conservationResearchEntwicklungszoneOuter transition areaLivingBenefitsResearchNature conservationLebenNützenForschenSchützenBuffer zonesNature conservationBenefitsResearchHere you can see the zoning and the the functions of the zones required by the MAB programme and the Seville strategy. In the core areas conservation and research should be the main topics, followed by the buffer zones where management in form of usage is required to conserve biodiversity, but the most divers and interesting functions can only be met by the outer transition area, as there are: to find models for sustainable living and land usage. Core and buffer zone help in monitoring and developing models to some extent, but the largest and most interesting zone is the transition area. So – which of the zones would be the most important one to meet he objectives of a modern BR?
21Kernzone Core Areas 37 core areas - 5.445 ha natural forest Strict nature conservationSingle areas from 1,5 ha to ha9 ownersResearch of natural processesonly in forestsmosaic pattern of 36 core zones, representing 22 different forest typesdevelopment of natural forests with as less human influence as possibleno forest usagerecreational use still possible in principle, but efforts on visitor management will have to be takenselection of the particular areas in a planning process on scientific basis, with participation of the ownerscontracts about compensational paymentsdeclaration as Nature Conservation Areas, thus strongest legal protection status
22Participation as applied with the stakeholder group about core zones Collective development of goals, mission statements and actions in the domain of forestry and woodlandInformation exchange between stakeholdersLarge forest enterprisesSmall forest enterprisesCommunity forest ownersRepresentatives of the forest authorities of Lower Austria and ViennaRepresentatives of nature protection NGO´sAdvisory board of expertsRepresentatives of the planning (civil servants of the two countries, BR managment, planning groups)
23Planning of the core zones - schedule Collecting of basic data and area proposals of the owners of the forestsARGE E.C.O. works out professional draft proposals for the zonation and arranges it with the real ownersdetailed planningThe real owners decide to take partThe forest directorates develop a pricing model to compensate forestry operations (long term)The owner gets a draft contractThe owner negotiates with thr federal statesImplementationThe owner does not acceptThe owner acceptsSigning the contractEnact as protected area
25Participation as applied with the stakeholder group about open land and agriculture Collective development of goals, mission statements and actions to sustain and preserve of the agriculture and the valuable cultural landscape.Information exchange between stakeholders.FarmersRepresentatives of the Chambers of Agriculture of Lower Austria and ViennaRepresentatives of nature protection NGO´sAdvisory board of expertsRepresentatives of the planning (civil servants of the two provinces, BR managment, planning groups)
26short transportAnimal welfareHigh Quality ProductBetter priceMeadows, pastures biodiversity – nature protectionEnforcing of local economyCooperation:FarmersButchersGastronomyConsumer
27Outer transition area ca. 80% of the area Development of new methods for sustainable livingSustainable activities for more quality of lifeNew partnerships and cooperationsattractivity as a residential area, pressure by an increase of building, source for an increase of road trafficdanger for the open-land cultivated landscape because of intensifying, but rather more serious, because of abandoning of traditional farming and land usein some areas rather intensive forestryincreasing recreational usevarious conflicts between different stakeholder groups
28Intensity and methods of Participation InformationSpeechesFlyer, posterNewspaper, website, ….ConsultationInterviewsWorkshopsDiskussionsParticipation on DesicionsVotesRight for vetocooperative planningIncreqasingParticipationIntensity of participationRecently i helped with an interdisciplinary project of the austrian mab committee about partizipation in BR´s in Austria. Planners of protected areas cooperate with researchers from change management, intervention management, political sciences and intervention research. There i learned this view of participation and governance.Increasing intensity of participationInform; Speeches, folders, newspaper. Consulting: Interviews, workshops, diskussions- Participation on desicions: Votes, right for a veto, cooperative planning = local governanceWorking on a case in austria where a national park shuold be turned into a br by participative means we saw, that when the process is started and people get involved you would need an exit strategy if participation doesn´t work out, otherwise the situation could be worse than before. And lots of money are lost. In this casethe government wanted them to define even the core zones with participative means and only 5 crucial landowners just do not want to be involved and block the process for the whole region.A positive outcome of this project may be the knowledge, that methods for participation used by change management specialists could be used on lots of people at once, working best with more than 400 persons. For me this is another strong that scientists from other than „green“ sciences are very much needed in brs to to have a broader scientific basis in social and economic sciences.GovernanceS. Lange, B. Reutz Hornsteiner, Partizipationsprozesse in Biosphärenparks, 2009, 4.3, Partizipation, pp. 42
30Education - Consultation Global Survey onBR´s:Information centres provide learning opportunities in three different ways and target six different groupsFalkParticipation and the issue of learning sites: BRs do act as a platform for learning processes. In the frame of a BR there evolve new activities. By participating in these BR activities the inhabitants are able to gain trust on a regional context (is basis of social capital) and to develop civil engagement. In a comprehensive dialogue, they will learn about BR targets as well as from each otherLocal Stewarts, or “biosphere champions” as they are recommended here in the GSABR, are called Biosphere Ambassadors in the Biosphere Reserve Vanerkülle, Sweden, and there the concept works really good. Coming from different groups of inhabitants with different preferences and strengths a variety of tasks and specialised information work is done by those volunteers.Learning for resilience? Exploring learning opportunities in Biosphere Reserves, Schultz, and Lundholm, Stockholm Resilience Centre, 2009
31Intervention strategies in Austrian BR´s Intervention strategies – fingerprinting the process In comparison of the three processes the research team tried to fingerprint the strategies of intervention. The strategy was expressed in antagonistic elements of process strategies that were identified in the individual processes:Top-down versus bottom upNormative versus process-orientedSovereign versus co-operativePush versus pullInternal promoters versus external promotersQuick versus slowConservative versus innovativeOnly the precise and focused strategic mix of process components can lead to a successful process. The successful mix differs from region to region and has to be defined individually (“fingerprint to success”). This tool integrates components of the applied perspectives within the study (participation, governance, change management, diversity management, intervention ethics) and allows therefore an strategic rapid analysis of the basic approaches within the development processes. The fingerprints of the three processes are documented in the three following figuresJungmeier, M., Paul-Horn, I., et al., Partizipationsprozesse in Biosphärenparks, 2009,2.2., Selected Results, pp. 14
32Wienerwald Declaration Climate AllianceSave on TrafficWienerwald DeclarationTo show you complexiy of the situation in the Wienerwald, i have brought some maps with the different regional managments that exist in the area, two in LA, an urban hinterland management and the management of the city of vienna.With an outer transition zone that large we have inhabitants within the borders of the BR, with all the inhabitants of he municipalities partizipating on the BR it s about people. This slide shows the overlapping zones of regional managements and smaller associations of communities and some chartas and conventions some of the municipalities have signed. Like the climate alliance or the „wienerwald declaration, a charta to promote sustainable development with objectives like a BR. Those masses of people and stakeholders suggest an urgent need of participative methods to involve people in the management of the area.I think that to involve people is a good way to show them, that they are living in a br and their ideas are apprecieted and wanted, to make themselves identify with their br. In this respect the br s not lines on a map but it is the people living there and supporting it. –in the mind and the heart of the people-Within the frame of the evaluation process of the Wienerwald case study, following general/ transferable conclusions can be drawn: Governance and the issue of the network: The according form of governance in the management of BRs is a network, having the role of a “medium” between all actors. Through the bundling of knowledge and personal resources, regional management authorities are becoming powerful creators of the regional development. The influence and success of a BR is predominantly determined by its regional network-capital (basic setting of actors). Furthermore the ability of the BR to communicate (communication) and the ability to bring different actors together (cooperation) are an important component.Governance, identity and the occupation of the social space: Big, vast BRs do often have more than one identity. The management is therefore much more claimed than in smaller BRs to provide “steering-inputs” to create a common consciousness. The creation of a brand and the occupation of the social space by the inhabitants of the BR are crucial for the success of big areas.
33Climate Alliance in the BR Wienerwald Autumn 2007 – Autumn 20103 Focal points Energy, Mobility, Soil32 Communitiessingle projects and regional projectsallocation council twice a yearmanagement of the subsidiescooperation with other initiatives (LEADER;…)cooperation with departments of the province and partnerorganisationsZiel ist es, durch die Projekte in der Klimabündnisregion eine CO2-Reduktion von 50 Prozent bis zum Jahr 2030 zu erreichen. Kompetente Unterstützung erhalten die Projektgemeinden dabei sowohl von den Partnerorganisationen AEE – Arge Erneuerbare Energie NÖ-Wien, „die umweltberatung “ NÖ, Klimabündnis NÖ, der Dorf- & Stadterneuerung, dem Regionalmanagement NÖ als auch vom Projektmanagement und dem Fördermanagement Klimabündnis Wienerwald sowie dem Land NÖ selbst im Rahmen der Maßnahmen des NÖ Klimaprogramms. Ziel ist es, durch die Projekte in der Klimabündnisregion eine CO2-Reduktion von 50 Prozent bis zum Jahr 2030 zu erreichen. Kompetente Unterstützung erhalten die Projektgemeinden dabei sowohl von den Partnerorganisationen AEE – Arge Erneuerbare Energie NÖ-Wien, „die umweltberatung “ NÖ, Klimabündnis NÖ, der Dorf- & Stadterneuerung, dem Regionalmanagement NÖ als auch vom Projektmanagement und dem Fördermanagement Klimabündnis Wienerwald sowie dem Land NÖ selbst im Rahmen der Maßnahmen des NÖ Klimaprogramms. Das Land NÖ stellt der Region dafür zusätzlich Euro an Fördermittel zur Verfügung.