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Globale Produktionsnetzwerke und Prekäres Upgrading in der Elektronikindustrie in Mittel- und Osteuropa (MOE) Die Beispiele Ungarn und Rumänien Leonhard.

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Präsentation zum Thema: "Globale Produktionsnetzwerke und Prekäres Upgrading in der Elektronikindustrie in Mittel- und Osteuropa (MOE) Die Beispiele Ungarn und Rumänien Leonhard."—  Präsentation transkript:

1 Globale Produktionsnetzwerke und Prekäres Upgrading in der Elektronikindustrie in Mittel- und Osteuropa (MOE) Die Beispiele Ungarn und Rumänien Leonhard Plank/Cornelia Staritz RV Globale Güterketten, Universität Wien, SS2010

2 Überblick I.Forschungsansatz II.Globale Elektronikindustrie III.MOE in der Globalen Elektronikindustrie IV.Upgrading in Ungarn und Rumänien V.Fazit

3 I. Forschungsansatz Ketten-/Netzwerk-Ansätze – Global Commodity Chains (Gereffi/Koreniewicz 1994); Global Value Chains (Gereffi/Humphrey/Sturgeon 2001); Global Production Networks (Henderson/Dicken/Hess/Coe 2002) Gewählter Zugang: Adaptierter GPN-Ansatz – Berücksichtigung von Nicht-Firmen Akteuren sowie regulativen und institutionellen Kontexten – Breitere Konzeption von Industrial Upgrading – Berücksichtigung von ArbeiterInnen & Social Upgrading

4 I.Forschungsansatz II.Globale Elektronikindustrie III.MOE in der Globalen Elektronikindustrie IV.Upgrading in Ungarn und Rumänien V.Fazit

5 II. Globale Elektronikindustrie Elektronik-Industrie – Hardware/Software/Services – Hardware-Produkte: iPod, Laptop, Handys, LCD-TV Globaler Handel – Rapider Anstieg seit den 1980ern; Dynamischster Sektor im globalen Handel Produktionsprozess –...in organisatorisch fragmentierten und geographisch breit gestreuten GPNs Zunehmende Integration von Entwicklungs-/ Transformationsländern in GPNs

6 Modularisierung der Value Chain Vertikal Integrierte Computer-Industrie (ca. 1980) Vertikal Spezialisierte Computer- Industrie (ca. 1995)

7 Main market segmentsProduct examplesLead firm examples 1) ComputersEnterprise computing systems, personal computers (desktop, notebook, netbook), embedded computers, etc. IBM, Fujitsu, Siemens, Hewlett Packard, Dell, Apple, Acer, Lenovo, etc. 2) Computer peripherals & other office equipment Printers, fax machines, copiers, scanners, etc. Hewlett Packard, Xerox, Epson, Kodak, Cannon, Lexmark, Acer, Fujitsu, Sharp, etc. 3) Consumer electronicsGame consoles, television, home audio & video, portable audio & video, mobile phone handets, musical equipment, toys, etc. Toshiba, NEC, Vizio, Sony, Sharp Apple, Nintendo, Microsoft, Samsung, LG, NEC, Matsushita, Hitachi, Microsoft, HTC, Philips, etc. 4) Server & storage devicesPortable, internal, external, backup systems, storage services, etc. Toshiba, Western Digital, EMC, NetApp, Hewlett Packard, Hitachi, Seagate, Maxtor, LeCie, Quantum, etc. 5) NetworkingPublic telecommunications, private communications networks, Internet, mobile phone infrastructure, etc. Alcatel, Nortel, Cisco, Motorola, Juniper, Huawei, Ericsson, Nokia, Tellabs, etc. 6) Automotive electronicsEntertainment, communication, vehicle control (braking, acceleration, traction, suspension), navigation, etc. TomTom, Garmin, Clarion, Toyota, General Motors, Renault, Bosch, Siemens, etc. 7) Medical electronicsConsumer medical, diagnostics & testing, imaging, telemedicine, meters & monitoring, implants, fitness, etc. General Electric, Philips, Medtronic, Varian, etc. 8) Industrial electronicsSecurity & surveillance, factory automation, building automation, military systems, aircraft, aerospace, banking & ATM, transportation, etc. Diebold, Siemens, Rockwell, Philips, Omron, Dover, etc. 9) Military & aerospace electronics Ground combat systems, aircraft, sea- based systems, eavesdropping and surveillance, satellites, missile guidance & intercept, etc. L-3 Communications, Lockheed Martin, Boeing, BAE Systems, Northrop Grumman, General Dynamics, EADS, L-3 Communications, Finmeccanica, United Technologies, etc. Source: Sturgeon/Kawakami (2010) Global Value Chains in the Electronics Industry. In: Cattaneo, O. /Gereffi, G./Staritz, C. (eds.): Global Value Chains in a Post-Crisis World. A Development Perspective. Washington: World Bank.

8 Akteure in der Unternehmenssphäre Lead firms bzw. Original Brand Manufacturer (OBM) Kontraktfertiger – Original Design Manufacturer (ODM) – Contract Electronics Manufacturer (CEM) bzw. Electronics Manufacturing Services firms (EMS) Zulieferer

9 Source: ILO (2007) The production of electronic components for the IT industries: Changing labour force requirements in a global economy. Geneva: ILO.

10 Top Kontraktfertiger Top 5 Taiwan-based CMsPrimary service2009 Revenue (US$ Millions) Foxconn/Hon HaiEMS44,065 Quanta ComputerODM23,265 Compal ElectronicsODM19,424 WistronODM16,226 InventecODM12,349 Top 5 North America-based CMs Flextronics (USA & Singapore)EMS30,949 Jabil Circuit (USA)EMS11,685 Celestica (Canada)EMS6,092 Sanmina-SCI (USA)EMS5,177 Benchmark Electronics (USA)EMS2,089 Top 5 CMs in other locations Venture (Singapore)EMS2.428 Elcoteq (Luxembourg)EMS2,090 SIIX (Japan)EMS1,360 Beyonics (Singapore)EMS1,120 Zollner Elektronik (Germany)EMS970 Source: Sturgeon/Kawakami (2010) Global Value Chains in the Electronics Industry. In: Cattaneo, O./Gereffi, G./Staritz, C. (eds.): Global Value Chains in a Post-Crisis World. A Development Perspective. Washington: World Bank.

11 Institutionelle und Regulative Kontexte FDI-Politik – Export-Zonen & ähnliche Instrumente: Industrial Free Trade Zones in Ungarn – Steuervergünstigungen & andere Incentives – Special Deals: Dell in Lodz (PL), Nokia in Cluj (RO) Handelsliberalisierung – Abschluss des Information Technology Agreement im Rahmen der WTO (Singapur, 1996) Aktuelles Streitfall: US/Japan/Taiwan vs. EU (6-14% Zölle auf Multifunktionsdrucker, TV Set-Top Boxen, LCD) – Regionale Handelsabkommen

12 INCENTIVES PROPOSED DURING EU PRE-ACCESSION PERIOD BY CENTRAL EUROPEAN COUNTRIES COUNTRIESHungaryPolandCzech RepSlovakia Incentives10 years corporate tax10 first years Full10 years Full corporate10 years corporate Tax exemptioncorporate tax exemptiontax exemptionexemption 5 years local tax exemption Subsidies EconomicSubsidies for training: develop.negotiable50 % of the cost Subsidies for JobSubsidies for job creation: max. USD negotiableUSD 4750 per jobUSD 3200 per job Imported raw materialsDuty and VAT suspension and componentsMax duration for reexport 2 years Equipment Duty free and VAT free import of new machinery equipment Industrial Parks/yes on requestYes on request yes on request customs free zones Customs office on site yes Source: Jabil Electronics, Electronics Manufacturing Investment in Ukraine, Presentation, 7. Juli 2005, Kiew, Ukraine

13 Geographie der Globalen Elektronikindustrie Global-Regionale Arbeitsteilung – Globale Zulieferer: Asien (China) – Regionale Zulieferer: Mexiko, Mittel- und Osteuropa North America Asia Mexico Lead firms (design, marketing, and sales) Contract manufacturer (circuit board and final assembly) Component and equipment suppliers Finished products Contract manufacturer (global headquarters, purchasing, circuit board and final assy.) Contract mfg. (purchasing, circuit board and final assy.) Orders, designs, bill of materials Components, equipment Component specs.

14 I.Forschungsansatz II.Globale Elektronikindustrie III.MOE in der Globalen Elektronikindustrie IV.Upgrading in Ungarn und Rumänien V.Fazit

15 Total Imports (SITC 75, 76, 776), in US$ USA30,28%USA25,09%China19,11%China27,73%China32,98% 2Japan22,53%Japan15,82%USA16,59%USA12,48%USA11,92% 3Singapore8,77%China8,55%Japan13,02%Japan10,46%Japan8,83% 4Other Asia, nes7,00%Other Asia, nes8,23%Other Asia, nes7,84%Rep. of Korea7,73%Rep. of Korea6,85% 5Malaysia5,35%Singapore6,65%Rep. of Korea6,39%Other Asia, nes5,88%Other Asia, nes5,15% 6Rep. of Korea4,55%Rep. of Korea6,34%Singapore6,26%Malaysia5,05%Malaysia4,87% 7China4,35%Malaysia5,52%Malaysia6,04%Singapore5,00%Hungary4,35% 8Special Cat.2,49%Special Cat.3,49%Hungary4,03%Hungary4,89%Czech Rep.3,75% 9Hong Kong2,41%Hungary3,14%Philippines2,92%Czech Rep.2,65%Singapore3,45% 10Thailand2,02%Philippines2,55%Czech Rep.2,29%Philippines2,51%Slovakia2,30% 11Canada1,38%Thailand2,13%Thailand2,14%Hong Kong2,03%Thailand2,20% 12Switzerland1,24%Hong Kong2,10%Hong Kong1,98%Thailand2,01%Philippines1,83% 13Europe EU, nes0,93%Canada1,80%Poland1,15%Turkey1,29%Poland1,52% 14Philippines0,90%Switzerland1,02%Turkey1,04%Costa Rica1,16%Hong Kong1,39% 15Areas, nes0,65%Israel0,99%Indonesia0,97%UAE1,04%Turkey0,89% 16Malta0,64%Indonesia0,82%Costa Rica0,97%Poland0,93%Costa Rica0,88% 17Norway0,57%Mexico0,69%Canada0,93%Switzerland0,90%Special Cat.0,79% 18Hungary0,57%Estonia0,69%Switzerland0,87%Slovakia0,89%Canada0,79% 19Israel0,56%Poland0,56%Mexico0,86%Canada0,80%Switzerland0,74% 20Indonesia0,39%Costa Rica0,55%Special Cat.0,61%Indonesia0,78%Mexico0,73% 1,20% 5,33% 8,74% 9,97% 10,53% Source: UN Comtrade Database, Electronics Imports into EU-15 from the World.

16 Elektronik-Produktion in MOE Source: Yearbook of World Electronics Data 2009/2010, Reed Electronics Research

17 MOE in der Globalen Elektronikindustrie Assembly-Plattform für EU-15 – Beispiel Ungarn: Handelsbilanzdefizit-/überschuss bei Komponenten/Endprodukten High-Tech-Exports??? Dominiert durch ausländische TNCs - 2 Phasen seit 1990ern – Expansion Lead firms/OBMs (ab Anfang der 1990er) Contract Manufacturers (ab Mitte 1990er) – Restrukturierung und verschärfter Verlagerungsdruck (ab 2001)

18 Dominanz ausländischer TNCs: Ungarn Source: Sass, Magdolna (2005) The ICT manufacturing sector in Hungary. Budapest: Institute of Economics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences

19 I.Forschungsansatz II.Globale Elektronikindustrie III.MOE in der Globalen Elektronikindustrie IV.Upgrading in Ungarn und Rumänien V.Fazit

20 Elektroniksektor in Ungarn und Rumänien Exporte – Ungarn: Top Exporter in EU-15; Rumänien: Newcomer – Export-Fokus auf EU-Markt Elektronik-Produktion – Ungarn: ca. 27% der Fertigungs-Industrie in HU (2007) – Rumänien: ca. 6% der Fertigungs-Industrie in RO (2007) Beschäftigungszahlen – Ungarn: ca Personen (2007) – Rumänien: ca Personen (2007)

21 Industrial und Social Upgrading Industrial Upgrading – Typologie von Humphrey/Schmitz (2002) a) Process (b) Product (c) Functional (d) Inter-Chain Upgrading – Embeddedness bzw. Effekte auf lokale Ökonomie Internal vs. External Upgrading Social Upgrading – ICFTU Basic Code of Labour Practice 8 Arbeitsstandards (inklusive 4 ILO Kernarbeitsnormen)

22 ICFTU Basic Code of Labour Practice no forced or bonded labour no discrimination in employment no child labour freedom of association and the right to collective bargaining right to a living wage no excessive working time occupational health and safety measures right to the establishment of an employment relationship.

23 Industrial Upgrading in Ungarn und Rumänien Internal Industrial Upgrading – Modernisierung des Sektors (Process, Product and Functional Upgrading) External Industrial Upgrading – Lokale Verflechtungen (linkages) Fehlende backward linkages Erklärung: absorptive capacity vs. etablierte Zulieferstruktur ( approved vendor list). – Spill-Overs & potentielle Channels Human-Kapital (skilled vs. un/semi-skilled) Demonstrations-Effekte Backward/Forward Linkages

24 Social Upgrading in Ungarn und Rumänien Polarisierung der Beschäftigten – Indirekte: Management, techn. Angestellte – Direkte: ArbeiterInnen an Fertigungsstraßen Arbeitsstandards – Löhne – Arbeitszeiten – Flexible Beschäftigungsformen – Gewerkschaftsrechte

25 I.Forschungsansatz II.Globale Elektronikindustrie III.MOE in der Globalen Elektronikindustrie IV.Upgrading in Ungarn und Rumänien V.Fazit

26 Fazit Internal Industrial Upgrading, aber beschränktes external Industrial Upgrading Beschränktes Social Upgrading …im Kontext der besonderen Rolle von ArbeiterInnen im Sektor (McDonalds-Approach) Oberflächliche Integration setzt Standorte und ArbeiterInnen Verlagerungsdruck bzw. Standortstrategien von OBMs/CMs aus Prekäres Upgrading

27 Danke

28 Elektronik GPN

29 A McDonald´s Approach (Lüthje 2002) Work without a product – As CEM-plants do not manufacture their own products, quality management and workplace control has to be refocused on customer orientation and manufacturing has to be organized as service work. Relatively low wages with high variable proportions – As most CEM-plants are located in low-cost areas, manufacturing wages and benefits are rather modest, and bonus-oriented pay-systems (including stock ownership and options) have to ensure customer orientation. Labour flexibility – The constant and very rapid change in production volumes is managed by an extensive use of various kinds of flexible employment. Quality management based on restricted teamwork – In most plants there is an ideology of team orientation, but no formal structure of work groups etc., as known from team concepts in other industries. Heavy reliance on women and minority workers – As in most areas of electronics manufacturing, the majority of the manufacturing workforce is female. In the U.S., in particular in California, the workforce is mainly recruited from ethnic minorities in disadvantaged labour market positions.


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