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HAW Hamburg, CARPE 2011, Prof. Dr. Rüdiger Weißbach, Revision : 01.11.2011- 1 - Bridging the Communication Gap in IT Projects - Enabling Non-IT Professionals.

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Präsentation zum Thema: "HAW Hamburg, CARPE 2011, Prof. Dr. Rüdiger Weißbach, Revision : 01.11.2011- 1 - Bridging the Communication Gap in IT Projects - Enabling Non-IT Professionals."—  Präsentation transkript:

1 HAW Hamburg, CARPE 2011, Prof. Dr. Rüdiger Weißbach, Revision : Bridging the Communication Gap in IT Projects - Enabling Non-IT Professionals for the Requirements Engineering Process 1 st CARPE Networking Conference, Utrecht Nov Creative Engineering - Prof. Dr. Rüdiger Weißbach

2 HAW Hamburg, CARPE 2011, Prof. Dr. Rüdiger Weißbach, Revision : Structure of the Presentation Relevance Leading Questions Communication in the Requirements Engineering & Management Process Ideas for Qualifying Non-IT Professionals for the Requirements Engineering & Management Process … how Instruction Books Assume … and how Reality is Different (the FaPrAa Project) Example: Training at the Hamburg University of Applied Sciences (HAW) Further Research Relevance Leading Questions Communication in the RE&M Process Ideas for Qualifying Non-IT Professionals for the RE&M Process (Supposed) Benefits, Constraints and Problems Example: Training at the HAW Further Research

3 HAW Hamburg, CARPE 2011, Prof. Dr. Rüdiger Weißbach, Revision : Relevance Einführung Allgemeine betriebs- wirtschaftliche Aspekte Informationssysteme und Marketing Entwicklung von Informations- systemen IT und allgemeines Management Betrieb von Infor- mationssystemen Factors influencing the… … success of IS projects … failure of IS projects clearly defined requirements user involvement badly defined requirements lack of user input Stendish Group, CHAOS Reports, et al.

4 HAW Hamburg, CARPE 2011, Prof. Dr. Rüdiger Weißbach, Revision : Relevance quality of requirements and user involvement are important for the projects success Einführung Allgemeine betriebs- wirtschaftliche Aspekte Informationssysteme und Marketing Entwicklung von Informations- systemen IT und allgemeines Management Betrieb von Infor- mationssystemen

5 HAW Hamburg, CARPE 2011, Prof. Dr. Rüdiger Weißbach, Revision : Leading Questions How are users involved in the Requirements Engineering and Management (RE&M) Process? Requirements Elicitation Requirements Analysis Requirements Documentation Requirements Validation Requirements Management Einführung Allgemeine betriebs- wirtschaftliche Aspekte Informationssysteme und Marketing Entwicklung von Informations- systemen IT und allgemeines Management Betrieb von Infor- mationssystemen

6 HAW Hamburg, CARPE 2011, Prof. Dr. Rüdiger Weißbach, Revision : Leading Questions How are users involved in the Requirements Engineering and Management (RE&M) Process? Requirements Elicitation Requirements Analysis Requirements Documentation Requirements Validation Requirements Management Einführung Allgemeine betriebs- wirtschaftliche Aspekte Informationssysteme und Marketing Entwicklung von Informations- systemen IT und allgemeines Management Betrieb von Infor- mationssystemen … analyzing instruction books, the users tend to have a more passive function,

7 HAW Hamburg, CARPE 2011, Prof. Dr. Rüdiger Weißbach, Revision : Users Communication in the RE&M Process … how instruction books assume Einführung Allgemeine betriebs- wirtschaftliche Aspekte Informationssysteme und Marketing Entwicklung von Informations- systemen IT und allgemeines Management Betrieb von Infor- mationssystemen REngineerDeveloper writes down req. RE asks for requirements Users answer asks for acknowledgement Users acknowledge RE forwards req.

8 HAW Hamburg, CARPE 2011, Prof. Dr. Rüdiger Weißbach, Revision : Users Einführung Allgemeine betriebs- wirtschaftliche Aspekte Informationssysteme und Marketing Entwicklung von Informations- systemen IT und allgemeines Management Betrieb von Infor- mationssystemen REngineerDeveloper writes down req. RE asks for requirements Users answer asks for acknowledgement Users acknowledge RE forwards req. Communication in the RE&M Process … how instruction books assume 2-step heavyweight communication flow

9 HAW Hamburg, CARPE 2011, Prof. Dr. Rüdiger Weißbach, Revision : Users Einführung Allgemeine betriebs- wirtschaftliche Aspekte Informationssysteme und Marketing Entwicklung von Informations- systemen IT und allgemeines Management Betrieb von Infor- mationssystemen REngineerDeveloper writes down req. RE asks for requirements Users answer asks for acknowledgement Users acknowledge RE forwards req. Communication in the RE&M Process … how instruction books assume 2-step heavyweight communication flow Problems: Different terminologies and communication cultures between users and software engineers Experts are not able to clarify tacit knowledge Experienced users are not able to keep an analytical distance to their requests Users are not trained in modeling languages Software engineers don't have (enough) domain knowledge No experienced requirements engineer to moderate the process

10 HAW Hamburg, CARPE 2011, Prof. Dr. Rüdiger Weißbach, Revision : Users Einführung Allgemeine betriebs- wirtschaftliche Aspekte Informationssysteme und Marketing Entwicklung von Informations- systemen IT und allgemeines Management Betrieb von Infor- mationssystemen REngineerDeveloper writes down req. RE asks for requirements Users answer asks for acknowledgement Users acknowledge RE forwards req. Communication in the RE&M Process … how instruction books assume Special Case Agile Development Problems: Different terminologies and communication cultures between user representatives and software engineers Users are not trained in modeling languages Experts are not able to clarify and tacit knowledge Experienced users are not able to keep an analytical distance to their requests Software engineers don't have (enough) domain knowledge No experienced requirements engineer to moderate the process Special Case Agile Development: agile processes institutionalize a close communication cycle between users and developers (e.g. the on site customer)

11 HAW Hamburg, CARPE 2011, Prof. Dr. Rüdiger Weißbach, Revision : Einführung Allgemeine betriebs- wirtschaftliche Aspekte Informationssysteme und Marketing Entwicklung von Informations- systemen IT und allgemeines Management Betrieb von Infor- mationssystemen Communication in the RE&M Process … and how reality is different The FaPrAa Project FaPrAa: Fachabteilungen im Prozess der Anforderungsanalyse (= Business Departments and the Requirements Engineering Process in IT Projects) research project at the Hamburg UAS (2009ff) 25 semi-structured interviews in SME in northwestern Germany (interviewees work in IT and business departments [BD]), focus on business applications (not on technical software)

12 HAW Hamburg, CARPE 2011, Prof. Dr. Rüdiger Weißbach, Revision : Einführung Allgemeine betriebs- wirtschaftliche Aspekte Informationssysteme und Marketing Entwicklung von Informations- systemen IT und allgemeines Management Betrieb von Infor- mationssystemen Communication in the RE&M Process … and how reality is different The FaPrAa Project – some intermediate results line management has to manage its own work and own processes => users often have documented own ideas users in traditional business often have experience in process organisation only few companies are using a formalised process model, some companies are working quasi agile, none of the interviewed companies has established an explicit role of a requirements engineer

13 HAW Hamburg, CARPE 2011, Prof. Dr. Rüdiger Weißbach, Revision : Einführung Allgemeine betriebs- wirtschaftliche Aspekte Informationssysteme und Marketing Entwicklung von Informations- systemen IT und allgemeines Management Betrieb von Infor- mationssystemen Communication in the RE&M Process … and how reality is different The FaPrAa Project – some intermediate results different cultures: 1.long term employed IT workers with domain and application knowledge are knowing the right things to do 2.long term co-operation between IT workers and BD managers, improving and upgrading existing systems 3.BD managers are promoting new applications, IT staff is only responsible for running infrastructure 4.top management decides about the introduction of new systems with external process support (consultnts, proj.mangrs)

14 HAW Hamburg, CARPE 2011, Prof. Dr. Rüdiger Weißbach, Revision : Einführung Allgemeine betriebs- wirtschaftliche Aspekte Informationssysteme und Marketing Entwicklung von Informations- systemen IT und allgemeines Management Betrieb von Infor- mationssystemen Communication in the RE&M Process … and how reality is different The FaPrAa Project – some intermediate results in the participating companies, the importance of RE&M is acknowledged typically the RE&M process is conducted without strict formal methods, caused … … by a lack of methodical knowledge … by a project management, which relies on the ad-hoc use of small time slots Interviewed IT and BD managers assume a more formalised RE&M process in future Interviewed IT and BD managers want a better qualified RE&M process

15 HAW Hamburg, CARPE 2011, Prof. Dr. Rüdiger Weißbach, Revision : REngineer Einführung Allgemeine betriebs- wirtschaftliche Aspekte Informationssysteme und Marketing Entwicklung von Informations- systemen IT und allgemeines Management Betrieb von Infor- mationssystemen Ideas for Qualifying Non-IT Professionals for the RE&M Process Users Domain Knowledge Methodical Knowledge

16 HAW Hamburg, CARPE 2011, Prof. Dr. Rüdiger Weißbach, Revision : REngineer Einführung Allgemeine betriebs- wirtschaftliche Aspekte Informationssysteme und Marketing Entwicklung von Informations- systemen IT und allgemeines Management Betrieb von Infor- mationssystemen Ideas for Qualifying Non-IT Professionals for the RE&M Process Users Domain Knowledge Methodical Knowledge

17 HAW Hamburg, CARPE 2011, Prof. Dr. Rüdiger Weißbach, Revision : Einführung Allgemeine betriebs- wirtschaftliche Aspekte Informationssysteme und Marketing Entwicklung von Informations- systemen IT und allgemeines Management Betrieb von Infor- mationssystemen Ideas for Qualifying Non-IT Professionals for the RE&M Process Domain Knowledge Training in the domain: (short) trainings apprenticeships on site customer job rotation job enlargement

18 HAW Hamburg, CARPE 2011, Prof. Dr. Rüdiger Weißbach, Revision : Einführung Allgemeine betriebs- wirtschaftliche Aspekte Informationssysteme und Marketing Entwicklung von Informations- systemen IT und allgemeines Management Betrieb von Infor- mationssystemen Ideas for Qualifying Non-IT Professionals for the RE&M Process Methodical Knowledge (1) Training in describing requirements: textual representation (e.g.: SOPHIST framework [RUPP]) Use Case Diagrams (UML) Use Case Templates [COCKBURN] Entity Relationship Modelling / Class Diagrams Activity Diagrams (UML) State Transition Diagrams (UML)

19 HAW Hamburg, CARPE 2011, Prof. Dr. Rüdiger Weißbach, Revision : Einführung Allgemeine betriebs- wirtschaftliche Aspekte Informationssysteme und Marketing Entwicklung von Informations- systemen IT und allgemeines Management Betrieb von Infor- mationssystemen Ideas for Qualifying Non-IT Professionals for the RE&M Process Methodical Knowledge (2) awareness of explicit and implicit knowledge acquirement by teaching, … knowledge about the requirements management process identification of interdependencies between requirements and their impact on the project management acquirement by participation in the change request process

20 HAW Hamburg, CARPE 2011, Prof. Dr. Rüdiger Weißbach, Revision : Einführung Allgemeine betriebs- wirtschaftliche Aspekte Informationssysteme und Marketing Entwicklung von Informations- systemen IT und allgemeines Management Betrieb von Infor- mationssystemen (Supposed) Benefits, Constraints and Problems of this Approach Benefits: better quality of requirements documentation better collaboration in project and line work Constraints: FaPrAa study concentrates on business applications (orgware)

21 HAW Hamburg, CARPE 2011, Prof. Dr. Rüdiger Weißbach, Revision : Einführung Allgemeine betriebs- wirtschaftliche Aspekte Informationssysteme und Marketing Entwicklung von Informations- systemen IT und allgemeines Management Betrieb von Infor- mationssystemen (Supposed) Benefits, Constraints and Problems of this Approach Problems: outsourcing changes the learning situation between users and IT staff but: training is important for outsourcing

22 HAW Hamburg, CARPE 2011, Prof. Dr. Rüdiger Weißbach, Revision : joint project : project management + marketing concept + req definition + system selection (+ implementation) Example: Training at the Hamburg University of Applied Sciences (HAW) BA program: Marketing / Business Studies t program- ming, testing database/ web systems ERP/CRM systems, IT managmnt RE&M, system selection marketing basic courses marketing concept 2 professors: marketing business informatics

23 HAW Hamburg, CARPE 2011, Prof. Dr. Rüdiger Weißbach, Revision : Einführung Allgemeine betriebs- wirtschaftliche Aspekte Informationssysteme und Marketing Entwicklung von Informations- systemen IT und allgemeines Management Betrieb von Infor- mationssystemen Further Research completion of the FaPrAa study graduate destination survey on the usefulness of the RE&M training development and evaluation of RE training programs for BD staff qualifications for managing sourcing processes integration of end users in the RE&M process (open innovation, crowdsourcing …)


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