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Heart & Circulatory System Heart (1): structure made of cardiac muscle surrounded by the pericardium (Herzbeutel) coronary arteries supply the heart.

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Präsentation zum Thema: "Heart & Circulatory System Heart (1): structure made of cardiac muscle surrounded by the pericardium (Herzbeutel) coronary arteries supply the heart."—  Präsentation transkript:

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2 Heart & Circulatory System

3 Heart (1): structure made of cardiac muscle surrounded by the pericardium (Herzbeutel) coronary arteries supply the heart muscle 2 sides - La-rve (!) each side consists of 2 chambers: an atrium and a ventricle heart valvevalves prevent back flow during contraction

4 Valves of the heart Atrio-ventricular valves (Segelklappen) Mitralklappe (I) Tricuspidalklappe(C) Between atrium and ventricle SemilunarSemilunar valves (Taschenklappen) Aortenklappe (K) Pulmonalklappe (E) Where blood exits (=leaves) the heart

5 11 Herzscheidewand Die Herzteile 1 Hohlvene (vena cava) 2 rechte Herzvorkammer 3 rechte Herzkammer 4 Aorta 5 Lungenarterie 6 Lungenvene 7 Taschenklappe 8 linke Herzvorkammer 9 Segelklappe 10 linke Herzkammer

6 Heart(2): Activity Atria and ventricles always contract alternately: Systole: period when atrium relaxes & ventricles contract Systole Diastole: period when atrium contracts & ventricles relax Diastole Stethoscope: to hear the heart beats Stethoscope Atrium Ventricle

7 Heart (3): Activity

8 The cardiac pacemaker Control of the heartbeat electrical impulses are sent from the SA (sinoatrial) node (Sinusknoten) and AV-node (=Vorhofknoten) and. through the autonomic nervous system (sympathetic NS/ parasympathetic NS ) These impulses first cause the atria to contract and then they cause the ventricles to contract. They control and coordinate the beating exactly. The cardiac pacemaker sends out electrical impulses.pacemaker

9 Heartfacts An adults heart beats about 70 times a minute. That means when you are 70 years old your heart would have beaten 3 billion times. It has the power of about 580 PS a day and weighs about 350 g. It pumps about 5 litres of blood a minute. The blood needs about 1 minute to circulate through the body.

10 Types of blood vessels (1)vessel Arteries (sg. artery):artery Take blood away from the heart, their walls are muscular and elastic (blood pulses through them with high pressure). ArteriosclerosisArteriosclerosis can lead to an infarct.infarct main artery: aorta aorta

11 capillaries artery vein arteriole venule tissue fluid tissue cells capillary wall O 2 glucoseCO 2 wastes

12 Types of blood vessels (2) Veins (sg. vein):vein Blood flows back to the heart, the walls are thin and not muscular. They have valves to prevent backflow of blood. This is also done by the arteries which are next to them (a. & v. are mostly grouped together), sometimes through the contraction of striated muscles (Muskelpumpe) main vein: vena cava (Hohlvene) Capillaries (sg. capillary):capillary Haargefäße, can only be seen under a microscope (diameter about 8/1000 mm), their functions are the exchange of materials (through diffusion) between blood and cells and the regulation of body temperature.

13 Valves allow blood to go forward... …but not backward valve open muscles contracted valve closed valve open muscles relaxed valve closed

14 Varicose veins VaricoseVaricose veins arise when there are weaknesses in the vein walls

15 Der Blutkreislauf (2) 1 Kopfvene 2 Lungenkapillaren 3 Lungenarterie 4 rechte Herzvorkammer 5 Hohlvene 6 rechte Herzkammer 7 Beinvene 8 Kopfkapillaren 9 Kopfarterie 10 Lungenvene 11 linke Herzvorkammer 12 Körperarterie 13 Herzklappen 14 linke Herzkammer 15 Leberkapillaren 16 Darmkapillaren 17 Beinarterie 18 Muskelkapillaren

16 Circulatory System (1) The Heart pumps the blood through a double circulatory system. The journey of the blood: systemic circulation (Körperkreislauf): blood from left ventricle > aorta > arteries > capillaries > exchange with cells > veins > vena cava > right atrium pulmonary circulation (Lungenkreislauf): blood from right ventricle >deoxygenated blood over pulmonary artery > lungs > becomes oxygenated > oxygenated blood pulmonary vein > left atrium

17 Circulatory System (2) The blood flows permanently through blood vessels, which are more than 1000 kilometres long. About 13% of the blood is always in the pulmonary circulatory, about 15% in arteries & 59% in veins of the systemic circulation. 5% in capillaries and about 9% in the heart. hepatic portal vein brings blood with nutrients from the digestive system to the liver.

18 Der embryonale Blutkreislauf Der embryonale Kreislauf besitzt Kurzschlussver- bindungen: das Foramen ovale und den Ver- bindungsgang zwischen Lungen- und Hauptschlag- ader. Beide sorgen dafür, dass die noch nicht entfaltete Lunge umgangen werden kann.

19 Blood vessels

20 Terminology What is an artery? What is a vein? What is deoxygenated blood? (=venöses Blut) What is oxygenated blood? (=arterielles Blut) Gibt es Venen mit arteriellem Blut und Arterien mit venösem? (=Are there veins with deoxygenated blood and arteries with oxygenated blood?) On which side of the heart is the blood oxygenated/deoxygenated?

21 Each organ has its own blood supply it depends on: their need for oxygen their amount of supporting blood vessels their function Individual Organs require different amounts of blood

22 Blood Pressure (Blutdruck) Blood pressure – the pressure, the blood exerts on the wall of the actual blood vessels – and is measured is measured in terms of millimeters of mercury (mmHg). Example- 140/90 mm Hg. Both values are used in BP assessment however it is the lower number which is more important. The normal range for the upper figure is 100 plus the individuals age (however this does not apply to the elderly where it is usually higher!). The upper figure is the systolic and the lower figure is the diastolic value.

23 High and Low Blood Pressure Niederer Blutdruck (Hypotonie) ist nicht immer spürbar, denn nicht immer macht er Probleme. Häufig treten aber folgende Beschwerden auf: Schwindel, Kollapsneigung, Wetterfühligkeit, morgendliche Antriebsschwäche, Schlafstörungen, Kältegefühl usw. Niedriger Blutdruck ist fast immer ungefährlich, bei älteren Leuten besteht jedoch Sturzgefahr durch den Schwindel. Bluthochdruck (Hypertonie, engl: hypertension) obere Werte, die höher als 160 und untere Werte, die höher als 95 sind, werden als erhöht angesehen. Ist der Blutdruck über längere Zeit erhöht, steigt das Risiko, Gefäßschäden, Augen-, Nieren- oder Herzerkrankungen bzw. einen Gehirnschlag zu bekommen. Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension) Is not always a cause for concern nor does it always cause problems. Usually symptoms include: Dizziness, Reduced appetite, Morning listlessness, Sleep disturbances, Cold shivers, etc. Low blood pressure is usually not life threatening, and among the elderly there exists the possibility of collapse during a dizzy spell. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) When The upper value is above 160 and the lower value is above 95, then this indicates elevated blood pressure. If the BP is elevated over a longer period of time, there is the risk of damage to various organs including: Vascular disease, Eyes -, Kidneys - and Heart disease, and leading possibly to a Cerebral hemorrhage.

24 The Electrocardiogram (ECG) With an ECG electrical activity in the heart is measured. This is indicated as curves or spikes. By measuring blood flow, it can determine whether there has been previous damage to the heart muscle from heart attacks or from inflammation, and whether blood flow is adequate For an exact diagnosis a Stress – ECG (Belastungs-EKG) needs to be performed (Ergometer). The P-spike indicates stimulation in the frontal chamber. QRS- spike indicates stimulation over all the chambers. And the T- curve indicates the decrease in overall electrical stimulation.

25 The heart lung machine

26 Herz und Lunge im Verbund

27 Quellen Timm, Michael: Gesundheit in Frage und Antwort, Midena- Verlag, Augsburg 1997 Natur und Wissen3: Der Mensch, Bertelsmann international, München 1984 de Bernabe, Dr. E. G., Schülerwissen aktuell, Tosa- Verlag, Wien 1998 Brenner, Klaus- Ulrich: Der Körper des Menschen, Weltbild- Verlag, Augsburg Atlas der Anatomie, Buch und Zeit Verlagsgesellschaft, Köln 1990 Unger, Hödl, Kalnoky u.a., Biologie und Ökologie Band II WB, Trauner Verlag, Linz 1997 Animationen:


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