Die Präsentation wird geladen. Bitte warten

Die Präsentation wird geladen. Bitte warten

Solare Einstrahlung auf der Erde 3.2 3.21 The revolution of the earth around the sun 3.22 Solare Einstrahlung.221 Wo steht die Sonne.222 Streuung und Absorption.

Ähnliche Präsentationen


Präsentation zum Thema: "Solare Einstrahlung auf der Erde 3.2 3.21 The revolution of the earth around the sun 3.22 Solare Einstrahlung.221 Wo steht die Sonne.222 Streuung und Absorption."—  Präsentation transkript:

1 Solare Einstrahlung auf der Erde The revolution of the earth around the sun 3.22 Solare Einstrahlung.221 Wo steht die Sonne.222 Streuung und Absorption der Solarstrahlung (Rayleigh, Angström,Linke).223 Diffuse und direkte Solarstrahlung (Liu Jordan,Reindl,Perez) [.224 Verschattung und Bodenreflektion] 3.23 Maps of horizontal surface global radiation Welt, Europa, Deutschland, Saarheimat 3.24 Simulationsprogramme.251 Excelblatt: Modellierung des Sonnenenergie - Dargebotes.252 kommerzielle Simulationsprogramme (hübsch, vermutlich korrekt, aber undurchsichtig und für Außergewöhnliches nicht zu gebrauchen)

2

3 Maps of horizontal surface global radiation World.232 Europe.233 Germany.234 local: geliebte Saarheimat

4 3.231 World World Map of mean global Solar Irradiance BezugsQuelle: University of Columbia, Prof. Pitman:Energy:lecture14

5 annual, March, June, September, December Angaben in [ kWh/ m2 ] für mittlere tägliche Einstrahlung / Palz-Greif 96: European Solar Radiation Atlas,p Europe Maps of horizontal surface global radiation Europe

6 / Palz-Greif 96: European Solar Radiation Atlas,p. 322

7 / Palz-Greif 96: European Solar Radiation Atlas,p. 323

8 / Palz-Greif 96: European Solar Radiation Atlas,p.324

9 / Palz-Greif 96: European Solar Radiation Atlas,p. 325

10 / Palz-Greif 96: European Solar Radiation Atlas,p. 326

11 Angaben in [ kWh/ m2 ] für mittlere tägliche Einstrahlung Solarstrahlung in Deutschland 3.233

12 Jahresummen der Globalstrahlung in Deutschland Quelle: RWE-Bauhandbuch 2004, Abb.17.6 Saarbrücken 1050 – 1100 [kWh/m^2/a]

13 Quelle: RWE-Bauhandbuch 2004, p. 17/7; Abb.17.7 Standort: Berlin, Breitengrad = 52°N Jahressummen der Globalstrahlung auf verschieden orientierten Flächen in [kWh/(m 2 a)]

14 Sonnenbahnen zu unterschiedlichen Jahreszeiten Quelle: RWE-Bauhandbuch 2004, p. 17/5; Abb.17.3 Standort: Berlin, Breitengrad = 52°N, Zeit: MEZ

15 Quelle:V. Quaschning 2003: Regenerative Energiesysteme(3.A.), Hanser Verlag München, ISBN= , Bild 2.10,p.53 Standort: Berlin, Breitengrad = 52.3°N Sonnenbahndiagramm für Berlin, 52°N 0°+90°-90°

16 In Deutschland überwiegt die diffuse Solarstrahlung Quelle: RWE-Bauhandbuch 2004, p. 17/6; Abb.17.5

17 Saarbrücken 1050 – 1100 [kWh/m^2/a] SB 1290 Jahresummen der Globalstrahlung Mittelwerte im Superjahr 2003 sorry, that I had to confound different sources with a different colour-scale

18 Regionale Solarstahlung im Saarland Bericht über eine Messkampagne im Rahmen eines EU-Projektes Synchrone Kurzzeitmessungen (30 sec) an 15 Stationen 3.234

19 Quelle: EU-Contract JOU2-CT , Details siehe Blatt Quelle; Titelblatt

20 Short Time Measurement (30 sec) of Global Solar Energy at horizontal plane over 2.5 years at 15 stations in the Region of Saarbrücken, Germany _1. Measuremenmts

21 EU-Contract JOU2-CT , Details siehe Blatt Quelle; Figure I.1-1, p.7 Relative coordinates of all measuring stations in relation to our Institute in Saarbrücken (Station 2 at (0, 0)). Coordinates of station 2: Longitude= 6°58 ; Latitude=49° 14

22 EU-Contract JOU2-CT , Details siehe Blatt Quelle; Figure I.1-2, p.7 Figure I.1-2: Relative coordinates of measuring stations in the near distance-grid in relation to our Institute in Saarbrücken (Station 2 at (0, 0))

23 EU-Contract JOU2-CT , Details siehe Blatt Quelle; Chapter 2.2, p.42 ff _2. Some Characteristic Patterns of global solar irradiance

24 EU-Contract JOU2-CT , Details siehe Blatt Quelle; p.42 Inspection of our solar radiation atlas gives rise to 8 main radiation patterns. In all diagrams, we confine ourselfs to the following time-range: Days: – Time: 08: :10 fixed UTC-time (but slightly varying local solar time) In the following slides we give only some examples

25 EU-Contract JOU2-CT , Details siehe Blatt Quelle; p.43 Pattern 1 : Percentage of days: 52% Strong uniform oscillations over the whole time range under consideration. In the mean, the difference between minimum and maximum amplitudes is 200 W/m2. Less pronounced oscillations occur at the margins of the time range. This is characterstic for a day with blue sky, compact clouds drifting uniformly over the region. The time intervall between successive minima or maxima varies between 10 and 50 minutes. Seasonal dependence: During summer days the maximum of the curve is located mainly above 600 W/m2, On the other days it is clearly below.

26 EU-Contract JOU2-CT , Details siehe Blatt Quelle; Fig. III.2.2, p.44 Pattern 1 - Strong uniform oscillations over the whole time-period

27 EU-Contract JOU2-CT , Details siehe Blatt Quelle; Fig. III.2-.2a, p.45 Pattern 1 - Strong uniform oscillations over the whole time-period Pattern 1 - Same as fig. III.2-2, but moving averages over 2.5 min and 5 min included

28 EU-Contract JOU2-CT , Details siehe Blatt Quelle; Fig. III.2-.3, p.46 Pattern 1 - Strong uniform oscillations over the whole time-period. Near distance grid Pattern 1 - Strong uniform oscillations over the whole time-period for stations in the near distance-grid

29 EU-Contract JOU2-CT , Details siehe Blatt Quelle; Fig. III.2-.4, p.47 Pattern 1 - Strong uniform oscillations over the whole time-period. Far distance grid

30 EU-Contract JOU2-CT , Details siehe Blatt Quelle; p.43 Pattern 2 : Percentage of days: 5% Clear Day: Smooth parabolic curve with at most only minor disturbances. The maximum of the curve is located above 600 W/m 2, with only a few exceptions mainly during winter days. This is characterstic for a clear day with no clouds. Even the regional maximum and minimum do not show strong fluctuations, -indeed, a very sunny summer-day. Seasonal dependence: During summer days the maximum of the curve is located mainly above 600 W/m2, On the other days it is clearly below.

31 Pattern 2: Smooth curve with minor fluctuations all Stations EU-Contract JOU2-CT , Details siehe Blatt Quelle; Fig. III.2-.5, p.48

32 EU-Contract JOU2-CT , Details siehe Blatt Quelle; p.43 Pattern 3 : Percentage of days: 12% Overcast Day: Smooth almost straight curve The maximum of the radiation does rarely exceed 100 W/m2. This pattern mainly occurs during the cold season and seems to indicate a uniform cloud coverage in the region of observation. The cloud-coverage does not seem to have remarkable gaps and is more or less of uniform thickness. Seasonal dependence: Most of the days showing such a pattern belong to the time between October and March.

33 EU-Contract JOU2-CT , Details siehe Blatt Quelle; Fig. III.2-.8 p.51 Pattern 3 - Overcast Day: Smooth almost straight curve Pattern 3 - Smooth curve with low maximum

34 Die anderen Klassen sind mehr oder weniger Kombinationen der vorgenannten

35 EU-Contract JOU2-CT , Details siehe Blatt Quelle; The Bimodal Structure of the Regional Solar Energy

36 Daily "snapshots, taken from to UTC during all 234 days between 15.5 and i n 1993, 1994 and 1995.

37 Frequency distribution and cumulated frequency of the clearness index, measured simultaneously at the 9 stations of the far-distance grid in 30 second time intervals for an airmass of am=1.1. The daily "snapshots" are taken from to UTC during all 234 days between 15.5 and in 1993, 1994 and Frequency distribution and cumulated frequency of the clearness index Quelle: EU-Contract JOU2-CT , Details siehe Blatt Quelle; Fig.III.3.2 Daily "snapshots, taken from to UTC during all 234 days between 15.5 and in 1993, 1994 and Airmass = ca sec

38 Classification of the clearness index distribution: Quelle: EU-Contract JOU2-CT , Details siehe Blatt Quelle; Table 3.1 Daily "snapshots, taken from to UTC during all 234 days between 15.5 and in 1993, 1994 and 1995.

39 Kt values kt only for the distributions belonging to the bimodal class of table 1 (with kt_maximum < 600 [promille] and kt_minimum < 400 [promille] (160 snapshots out of the 234 represented in Fig III Bimodal Class: days with bimodal distribution Quelle: EU-Contract JOU2-CT , Details siehe Blatt Quelle; Fig.III.3.3 Daily "snapshots, taken from to UTC during all 234 days between 15.5 and i n 1993, 1994 and Airmass = ca sec

40 Positional parameters kt_max, kt_mean and kt_min of the distributions of clearness index belonging to the bimodal class. The days are sorted for ascending kt_mean. Quelle: EU-Contract JOU2-CT , Details siehe Blatt Quelle; Fig.III.3.4 bimodal class:

41 Positional parameters kt_max, kt_mean and kt_min of the distributions of clearness index belonging to the unimodal class. In each subclass (c.f. Table III.3-1) the days are sorted for ascending kt_mean. Quelle: EU-Contract JOU2-CT , Details siehe Blatt Quelle; Fig.III.3.5 Unimodal class:

42 Daily 6 hours time range : from 9:00 to UTC during all 234 days between 15.5 and i n 1993, 1994 and 1995.

43 Frequency distribution and cumulated frequency of the clearness index for the time-range 9: :00 UTC (this and the following diagrams). All 234 days are taken into account. Frequency distribution and cumulated frequency of the clearness index Quelle: EU-Contract JOU2-CT , Details siehe Blatt Quelle; Fig.III.3.7 Daily 6 hours time range: 9:00 to UTC during all 234 days between 15.5 and in 1993, 1994 and sec unselected

44 Classification of the clearness index distribution: Quelle: EU-Contract JOU2-CT , Details siehe Blatt Quelle; Table 3.2, p.91 Daily 6 hours time range: from 9:00 to UTC in all 234 days between 15.5 and in 1993, 1994 and 1995.

45 Bimodal Class: days with bimodal distribution Quelle: EU-Contract JOU2-CT , Details siehe Blatt Quelle; Fig.III.3.8, p.91 Daily 6 hours time range: 9:00 to UTC during bimodal days between 15.5 and in 1993, 1994 and sec Joint frequency distribution and cumulated frequency for days with bimodal distribution.

46 Positional parameters kt_max, kt_mean and kt_min of the distributions of clearness index belonging to the bimodal class. The days are sorted for ascending kt_mean. Time range: 9: :00 UTC Quelle: EU-Contract JOU2-CT , Details siehe Blatt Quelle; Fig.III.3.9 bimodal class:

47 Quelle: EU-Contract JOU2-CT , Details siehe Blatt Quelle; Fig.III.3.10, p.92 Unimodal class: P ositional parameters kt_max, kt_mean and kt_min for non-bimodal (unimodal) distributions. Time range: 9: :00 UTC

48 Modellierung und Simulationsprogramme 3.24

49 Modellierung des Sonnenenergie Dargebotes auf einem Excel- Kalkulationsblattt 3.241

50 Kollektor bestimmt durch: 1. Normalvektor auf Fläche {Fläche, Azimut, Neigung zur Horizontalen} 2. Verschattung 3. Boden als Reflektorfläche Übersicht zum Solarangebot Transmission durch Atmosphäre: Streuung, Absorption Output: 1. Direkte Strahlung, Diffuse Streustrahlung G = I + D, D ist nicht isotrop ! 2. Frequenzfilter spektrale Transmission unterschiedlich für I und D. SenderEmpfänger Solarstrahlung extraterrestrisch Sonnenvektor: {I0, Azimut, Sonnenhöhe}

51 Kollektor bestimmt durch: 1. Normalvektor auf Fläche {ok} {Fläche, Azimut, Neigung zur Horizontalen} 2. Verschattung {etwas aufwendig, aber ok} 3. Boden als Reflektorfläche {schwierig} Ermittlung der verfügbaren Solarstrahlung Transmission durch Atmosphäre: Messwert meist nur: Globalstrahlung G(0) (1) aus statistischer Korrelation: D(0) {Liu-Jordan + Nachfolger, Reindl-Duffi-Beckman 89} (2) aus Modell : Transponieren auf Kollektorebene: D(Kollektor) {Peretz Modell} I(Kollektor) {trivial, geometrisch } G(Kollektor) = D(Kollektor) + I(Kollektor) SenderEmpfänger Solarstrahlung extraterrestrisch Input: DA$=JJMMTT.hhmmss Datum + wahreOrtszeit Output: Sonnenvektor: {ok} {I0, Azimut, Sonnenhöhe}

52 Beispiel für Berechnungskern auf einem Excel-Kalkulationsblatt Goto OriginalKalkulationsBlatt

53 Die Spalten, in denen die Inputs und dieGleichungen stehen


Herunterladen ppt "Solare Einstrahlung auf der Erde 3.2 3.21 The revolution of the earth around the sun 3.22 Solare Einstrahlung.221 Wo steht die Sonne.222 Streuung und Absorption."

Ähnliche Präsentationen


Google-Anzeigen