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EMISSIONEN Modul Luftchemie 15.01.2010 Andreas Kerschbaumer.

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Präsentation zum Thema: "EMISSIONEN Modul Luftchemie 15.01.2010 Andreas Kerschbaumer."—  Präsentation transkript:

1 EMISSIONEN Modul Luftchemie Andreas Kerschbaumer

2 Modul Luftchemie, Gliederung Anthropogene und biogene Emissionen Anthropogene Emissionen: –Quellen - Einteilung in SNAP level 1 –Spezies Biogene Emissionen –Landnutzungsdatenbasis –Wind-blown-Dust –Seesalz –Biogene Spezies (VOC, NO, SO2 …) Beispiele

3 Modul Luftchemie, Warum braucht man Emissionskataster? Beschreibung von zeitlichen Entwicklungen in Emissionsmengen (Vergangenheit, Heute, Zukunft) Identifizierung von Trends (um gegebenenfalls eingreifen zu können) Identifizierung der (relativen) Bedeutung von Quellen Abschätzung von Emissionsminderungen durch politische, technische … Maßnahmen Weitere Minderungspotenziale bei bestimmten Quellen (Kostenfrage) Eingangswerte für Ausbreitungsrechnungen

4 Modul Luftchemie, Modellhafte Darstellung der Luftverunreinigung

5 Modul Luftchemie, Kausalität: Luftverunreinigung Pressures State Impact Responses Driving forces e.g. health, ecosystems Pressures Responses Drivin g forces Causes (economic growth, increasing mobility) Emissions of pollutants Policy (e.g., regulation of emissions, filters, new technologies PM10, NOx, ……

6 Modul Luftchemie, Emissionsquellen

7 Modul Luftchemie, Emissionsquellen Unterscheidung zwischen Punktquellen und diffusen Quellen –Punktquellen geographisch eindeutig zuordenbar –Emissionsstärke einfacher abzuschätzen Diffuse Quellen sind schwierig zu messen, zu quantifizieren und zu kontrollieren BEISPIEL: Feinstaub –Feinstaub aus Punktquellen: – Schlot: Ort, Höhe und Überhöhung mess- bzw. abschätzbar – Produktion und Verbrennungsprozesse bekannt –Feinstaub aus diffusen Quellen: – Produktion unter freiem Himmel – Transport

8 Modul Luftchemie, Emissionsquellen SNAP Selected Nomenclature for sources of Air Pollution

9 Modul Luftchemie, Emissionsspezies: Main pollutants (gaseous) CO NH3 NMVOC NOx SOx Heavy Metalls As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn POP (persistent organic pollutants) PAH, benzo(a), benzo(b) … PM (particulate matter) PM10, PM2.5, TSP

10 Modul Luftchemie, Example of TNO project: COORDINATED EUROPEAN PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSION INVENTORY PROGRAM (CEPMEIP) Activity_ID Sector Location Time Activities AR-Value EF_ID Technology_ID TSP PM10 PM2.5 EF-Value Emission Factors Technology_ID Description Technology level Covers all known anthropogenic emission causes of primary particulate matter; ~ 200 source categories - For each source category TSP, PM10 & PM2.5 emission factors derived. Emission factor : Representative index number that expresses the emission of a pollutant per unit of activity (e.g., g PM10 / GJ fuel) Emission is highly determined by emission control measures – technology level information is crucial! By source By country /grid Emissions

11 Modul Luftchemie, But…in underlying inventory much detail is necessary! Example combustion in industry: Fuels (influence on emissions due to quality and composition): Heavy fuel oil Lighter fuel oil Gas Coal, brown coal, peat Wood Industrial waste Installation types (influence on emissions due to emission limits, removal efficiencies, Emission control technologies) Autoproducers (> 50 MWth) Other large boilers ( MWth) Large and small furnaces where combustion gases and proces emissions are emitted through the same stack (covered by Industrial process emissions, MWth) Small Boilers (< 50 MWth)

12 Modul Luftchemie, Emissionserhebung: Resultat Beispiel anthropogene PM10

13 Modul Luftchemie, Emissionserhebung: Resultat Beispiel anthropogene PM2.5 – Bezugsjahr 2000

14 Modul Luftchemie, Beispiel (TNO-Erhebung): Sulphur dioxide (SO2) in Europe - I The main emission sources of SO2 are combustion processes, especially the combustion of coal and heavy fuel oil. In addition there are non- ferrous metals smelting processes of which the ores are generally in sulphide form. Activity data for fossil fuel combustion are taken from the IEA Energy Statistics [IEA 2003]. The IEA distinguishes several coal ranks and heavy and medium distillate fuel oils, as well as different types of lighter fuels and gasses. Emission factors - Combustion related SO2 emission by fuel type i and process j is calculated according to: Emissionfuel(i) = [Usefuel(i) x Sulphur contentfuel(i) - Sulphur retentionprocess(j)] x Removal efficiencyprocess(j) Values per country, by fuel type and by process for sulphur contents, sulphur retention in ashes and removal efficiencies have been taken from RAINS 7.2. [Cofala et al. 1998].

15 Modul Luftchemie, Beispiel (TNO-Erhebung): Sulphur dioxide (SO2) in Europe - II

16 Modul Luftchemie, Trends…. Importance of sources shifts over time! What is <10% today may dominate emissions in the future. PastPresent

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20 Road transport (Quelle: TNO) Large activity growth Decreasing tail pipe emissions due to technological improvements None-tail pipe emissions (wear of tires etc.) follow the trend of acticity growth Relative importance of non-tail pipe is increasing To make an inventory of road transport emissions we need to know: Activity data – fuel consumption (by type: diesel, gasoline, LPG) by vehicle category (passenger cars, HDV, LDV, motorcycles) fuel quality / composition (S content, Pb,..) technology level of fleet by year (emission limits, requirements) Split in number of km driven urban / rural

21 Modul Luftchemie, Emission inventories for AQ Teheran – what is needed? Activity_ID Sector Location Time Activities AR-Value Activity_ID Technology_ID Penetration Select_Techn EF_ID Technology_ID Pollutant EF-Value EmissionFactors Technology_ID Description Technologies Tables of the relational TEAM database need to be filled – asking for 1)activity (statistical) data on energy consumption, industrial production,….. 2)technologies present in Iran and their relative importance (penetration); 3)technology specific emission factors.

22 Modul Luftchemie,

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24 Jahressummen für viele Spezies und Quellen!!!! Und nun????

25 Modul Luftchemie, Time- and temperature factors!!!!

26 Modul Luftchemie, Time- and temperature factors!!!!

27 Modul Luftchemie, Time- and temperature factors!!!!

28 Modul Luftchemie, Time- and temperature factors!!!!

29 Modul Luftchemie, Time- and temperature factors!!!!

30 Modul Luftchemie, VOC – Splitting !!!!

31 Modul Luftchemie, Biogene Emissionen - Waldbrände

32 Modul Luftchemie, Biogene Emissionen – Blitze (NOx)

33 Modul Luftchemie, Biogene Emissionen – Vulkane (SO2 – SO4)

34 Modul Luftchemie, Biogene Emissionen - Seesalz

35 Modul Luftchemie, Biogene Emissionen – Seesalz (Beispiel RCG-Modell)

36 Modul Luftchemie, Biogene Emissionen – Seesalz (Beispiel RCG-Modell)

37 Modul Luftchemie, Biogene Emissionen

38 Modul Luftchemie, Winderosion – Wind-blown-dust

39 Modul Luftchemie, Winderosion – Wind-blown-dust

40 Modul Luftchemie, Winderosion – Wind-blown-dust

41 Modul Luftchemie, Winderosion – Wind-blown-dust

42 Modul Luftchemie, Winderosion – Wind-blown-dust

43 Modul Luftchemie, Winderosion – Wind-blown-dust

44 Modul Luftchemie, Winderosion – Wind-blown-dust

45 Modul Luftchemie, Winderosion – Wind-blown-dust in Modellen (Beispiel RCG)

46 Modul Luftchemie, Biogene VOC aus Wäldern Biogenic emissions are important for Ozone production 60-70% of secondary aerosols are of biogenic origin Biogenic aerosol formation is not well understood Quantify the impact of biogenic emission information on simulations

47 Modul Luftchemie, Biogene VOC aus Wäldern

48 Modul Luftchemie, Biogene VOC aus Wäldern

49 Modul Luftchemie, Biogene VOC aus Wäldern

50 Modul Luftchemie, Danke für die Aufmerksamkeit!


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