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Justus-Liebig-University Giessen Institute of Landscape Ecoology and Resources Management Martin Bach Assessment of agricultural nitrogen balances for.

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Präsentation zum Thema: "Justus-Liebig-University Giessen Institute of Landscape Ecoology and Resources Management Martin Bach Assessment of agricultural nitrogen balances for."—  Präsentation transkript:

1 Justus-Liebig-University Giessen Institute of Landscape Ecoology and Resources Management Martin Bach Assessment of agricultural nitrogen balances for municipalities – Example Baden-Wuerttemberg EEA Agri-water Expert meeting, Copenhagen, Feb 2005

2 Institute of Landscape Ecology and Resources Management EU, OECD: Agri-sustainability indicator - environmental pressures (water, atmosphere) - waste of resources Effectiveness of policies: EU Nitrate Directive, national action programmes Verification of supra-national treaties, e.g. OSPARCOM Sustainability Strategy Program of the German Gouvernment: DUX-Indicator (German Environment Index) Trend of the national nitrogen surplus Component of National Gross Environmental Budget (UGR, Umwelt- ökonomische Gesamtrechnung), indicating the external costs of nitrogen losses into air, terrestrial ecosystems, surface waters, groundwater, sea WFD implementation: source appointment, prediction of efficiency of reduction measures Farm level: Optimization of N-management (tools e.g.: EMA in the UK; REPRO, QSL in Germany) Usage of nitrogen balance surplus

3 Institute of Landscape Ecology and Resources Management Best available indicator for water quality eutrophication by non-point source N losses e.g. Modelling approaches of EUROHARP models, especially MONERIS WFD: 10 km² basin units spatially differentiated calculation of N surplus max resolution of ag-census based N balance Germany: municipalities (EU LAU level 2) Nitrogen soil surface surplus in the WFD context

4 Institute of Landscape Ecology and Resources Management Problems Lack of data (data secrecy) Estimation of N mineral fertilizing quantities Ag-census based calculation of nitrogen soil surface surplus

5 Institute of Landscape Ecology and Resources Management Missing data of the Agricultural Census Background Data secrecy policy: a statistical data wont be published when based on three or less individual values Replacement by estimated figures: missing data recalculted as the difference between sum over a county andsum over all muncipalities with published data

6 Institute of Landscape Ecology and Resources Management Missing data of the Agricultural Census - Crop acreage Crop (acreage)No. of missing data Fraction of municipalities* Missing quantity % of state total Agricultural land total 9 0,8 % 0,1 % Arable land 31 1,4 % 0,1 % Pasture 1626,6 % 0,1 % Orchards295n.d. 2,3 % Vineyards n.d. 0,1 % 2,9 % Wheat 53 4,8 % 0,1 % Barley11710,5 % 0,7 % Legumes32629,3 %12,6 % Potatoes13912,5 % 1,9 % Sugar beet14312,9 % 4,0 % Fodder maise16314,7 % 1,7% Oilseed rape23220,9 % 2,8 % Vegetable34030,6 %12,1 % *) n = 1112 municipalities

7 Institute of Landscape Ecology and Resources Management Livestock (heads)No. of missing data Fraction of municipalities* Missing quantity % of state total Bovines total11310,2 % 0,6 % - therefore cows17215,5 % 1,4 % Pigs total23521,2 % 2,4 % - therefore souws33930,5 % 7,6 % Sheep44239,8 %32,1 % Poltry28425,6 %42,1 % *) n = 1112 municipalities Missing data of the Agricultural Census - Livestock

8 Institute of Landscape Ecology and Resources Management farmers N fertilization scheme: N plant demand = N mineral fertilization + N organic fertilizer*efficiency factor + other N supply N plant demand: crop specific N demand for optimal harvest yield (table values) N organic fertilizing: N supply to the field with farm produced manure; N supply = N excretion of livestock minus volatilzation losses Efficiency factor: fraction of N in manure which is availabe for the field crop, according to farmers fertilization calculation Other N supply: N-fixation by legumes, secondary organic fertilizers Estimation approch of nitrogen mineral fertilization N mineral fertilization = N plant demand – N organic fertilizer*efficiency factor – other N supply

9 Institute of Landscape Ecology and Resources Management Estimation approach of nitrogen mineral fertilization Validation of the assessment : Estimated N mineral fertilizer amounts summed up over all crops and all counties in Germany mineral fertilizer consumption of agriculture in total (census based) Best calibration with an efficiency factor = 36 % (average Germany 1998/2000). Figures (kg N/ha AA, average Germany 1998/2000): plant demand – organic fertilizer*efficiency factor – other supply = mineral fertilizer 144 – 53 * 0,36 – 15 = 110 used for calculation of mineral fertilizing of individual municipalities Farmers do not accounted for 64 % of N in their manure (= potential losses when planning crop fertilization schemes)

10 Institute of Landscape Ecology and Resources Management Nitrogen soil surface surplus kg N/ha AA no agriculture no data Lake Contance Nitrogen surplus Results for Municipalities* Baden-Wuerttemberg 1999 *) EU LAU level 2, NUTS 5

11 Institute of Landscape Ecology and Resources Management Quality check of nitrogen soil surface surplus results Nitrogen surplus based on Agricultural Census (kg N/ha AA) : 1-Line r² = 0,45 Nitrogen surplus acc. to empirical data (kg N/ha AA) Comparison of Ag- Census based vs. empirical N budgets (mainly farm based data) Database: Literature review, 8 studies with together 32 municipalities (in 5 German states) (Bach et al.,1996)

12 Institute of Landscape Ecology and Resources Management <= 40 % % % % % > 150 % Baden-Wuerttemberg: NO 3 -conc. in aquifers measured vs. modelled Source: J. Ruf, Environment Agency Baden-Wuerttemberg, 2004 Groundwater NO 3 -concentration Relation measurement / model (%)

13 Institute of Landscape Ecology and Resources Management Assessment of nitrogen balances for municipalities yields reasonable, quantitative figures with high spatially resolution Results are an operational tool for the WFD status reports (at risk vs. not at risk; source apportionment) But: Farm-gate balances are methodologically more precise and the results indicate the problem closer to its origin (farms with huge livestock density) Outlook: Prediction of effectiveness (and efficiency) of nitrogen loss reduction measures in ag production systems needs process- oriented nitrogen models (e.g. SWAT, DNDC and others) - nitrogen surplus is not sufficient for this purpose. Resume

14 Institute of Landscape Ecology and Resources Management

15 Thank you for your attention! You are a great audience!

16 Institute of Landscape Ecology and Resources Management Groundwater Tile drainage Erosion Surface runoff WWTP Urbans areas Atmospheric deposition Source: Landesanstalt fuer Umwelt- schutz Baden-Württemberg, 2000 Total Nitrogen emissions from: MONERIS (Behrendt et al., 1999) Results Baden-Wuerttemberg

17 Institute of Landscape Ecology and Resources Management Balance Position National (farm-gate) balance Soil surface (crop production) balance kg N/hectare AA Mineral (chemical) fertilizier+109 Secondary organic fertilizer ( sewage sludge, compost) + 4 Imported fodder+ 22 Fodder from domestic processing+ 14 Organic fertilizing (manure)+ 50 Atmospheric deposition (netto) NH3-deposition on ag area Legume nitrogen fixation+ 11 Market export of crop products- 35 Market export of livestock products- 19 Harvest withdrawal-121 Balance surplus= 117= 75 Nitrogen balance of German agriculture 2000

18 Institute of Landscape Ecology and Resources Management Wasserschutz- gebietszonen WSG-Zonen Zone I Zone II Zone III Zone IIIA Zone IIIB Landnutzung N-Saldo Hydrogeolog. Einheiten Boden (NAG), Niederschlag Bsp. Hessen: Auswertung WSG

19 Institute of Landscape Ecology and Resources Management Schätzung NO 3 -Konz. in GW-Messstellen Regressionsansatz log (C NO3 ) = a 0 + a 1 *Wald% + a 2 *Siedl% + a 3 *Grünl% + a 4 *(Acker%*N-Saldo) + a 5 *Tiefe + a 6 *SWS C NO3 = Mittlere Nitratkonz. des Rohwassers (mg NO 3 /l) Wald% = Anteil des Waldes an der Gesamtfläche (%) Grünl% = Anteil des Grünlands an der Gesamtfläche (%) Siedl% = Anteil der Siedlung an der Gesamtfläche (%) Acker%*N-Saldo= Produkt aus Ackerlandanteil und mittlerem N-Bilanzüberschuss Tiefe = Mittlere Rohwasserentnahmetiefe (m) SWS = Geschätzte mittlere Sickerwasserspende (mm/a)

20 Institute of Landscape Ecology and Resources Management Bsp. Hessen: Regressionsgleichung - Brunnen Modellschritt r2r2 Korrigiertes r 2 1. Wald%,259, Grünl%,341, Tiefe,397, SWS,418,415 Alle Brunnen-Messstellen (Hessen gesamt), n = 811 log (C NO3 ) = 1,964 – 7,04E-03*Wald% – 4,15E-03*Grünl% – 2,43E-03*Tiefe – 6,19E-04*SWS NO 3 -Konz. (mg/l) (berechnet) NO 3 -Konz. (mg/l) (gemessen)

21 Institute of Landscape Ecology and Resources Management Einheit: Nordhessisches Buntsandsteingebiet, n = 82 log (C NO3 ) = 1,889 – 8,57E-03*Wald% – 5,97E-04*SWS SQS r2r2 Korrigiertes r 2 Wald%,697,694 SWS,716,709 NO 3 -Konz. (mg/l) (berechnet) NO 3 -Konz. (mg/l) (gemessen) Bsp. Hessen: Regressionsgleichung - Quellen (SQS)

22 Institute of Landscape Ecology and Resources Management Hydrogeologische Großeinheiten BrunnenQuellen (SQS) nr2r2 nr2r2 Hessen gesamt811, ,406 Nordhessisches Buntsandsteingebiet91,56982,709 Niederh. Senke und Röt-Muschelkalk25,60743,469 Rheinisches Schiefergebirge211,329276,474 Basaltgebiete138,35883,367 Osthessisches Buntsandstein-Gebiet192,424228,552 Quartär und Tertiär des Untermain49,3277n.s. Kristallin und Rotliegendes71,274238,280 Quartär des Oberrheingrabens12n.s.20n.s. Buntsandstein-Gebiet des Odenwaldes22,56080,423 Bsp. Hessen: Ergebnisse (r²)

23 Institute of Landscape Ecology and Resources Management Bsp. Baden-Württemberg: Berechnete Denitrifikationsraten Quelle: J. Ruf, LfU Baden-Württemberg, 2003 Modellberechnung* Messung Grundwasserleiter Kluftgrundwasser Karst Sonstige *) Denitrifikationsrate = f{N-Überschuss LF, N-Deposition Wald, Nutzungsanteile, Sickerwassermenge, c(NO3)-GW gemess. }

24 Institute of Landscape Ecology and Resources Management National balance (farm gate) Soil surface balance Nitrogen surplus (kg N/ha AA) Nitrogen balance surplus Germany 1950 to 2002 * *) 2002: preliminary results

25 Institute of Landscape Ecology and Resources Management Nitrogen Surplus - Soil surface balance - of the Agricultural Area (AA) Germany, NUTS 3 level (counties) kg N / hectare AA

26 Institute of Landscape Ecology and Resources Management Nitrogen Surplus related to the total land area of the counties (all land uses*) Germany, NUTS 3 level (counties) - *) AA: N soil surface surplus of the agricultural land; other uses (forest; urban and traffic areas): 5 kg N/ha N surplus kg N / hectare total area

27 Institute of Landscape Ecology and Resources Management Überschuss Stickstoff-Flächenbilanz N-Bilanzüberschuss Baden-Württemberg MONERIS Ergebnisse (Behrendt et al.) Quelle: Landesanstalt für Umwelt- schutz Baden-Württemberg, 2000 <= 70 kg kg N/ha 71 – 80 kg N/ha 81 – 90 kg N/ha 91 – 100 kg N/ha 101 – 110 kg N/ha 111 – 120 kg N/ha 121 – 130 kg N/ha >130 kg N/ha

28 Institute of Landscape Ecology and Resources Management Stickstoff-Flächenbilanzüberschuss Landwirtschaft (Bach / 1995) Stickstoff-Hoftorbilanzüberschuss Landwirtschaft (Zeddies / 2001) Nährstoffbilanzierung Baden-Württemberg - MONERIS Baden-Württemberg - Quelle: LfU – Landesanstalt für Umweltschutz Baden-Württemberg – Sachgeb. 41.1

29 Institute of Landscape Ecology and Resources Management Nährstoffbilanzierung Baden-Württemberg - MONERIS Baden-Württemberg - Quelle: LfU – Landesanstalt für Umweltschutz Baden-Württemberg– Sachgeb Gesamte spezifische Stickstoff-Emissionen nach MONERIS: Grundwasser Drainagen Erosion Abschwemmung Kläranlagen Urbane Flächen Atmosphär. Deposition

30 Institute of Landscape Ecology and Resources Management Überschuss der Stickstoff- Flächenbilanz der Gemeinden in Hessen 1999 Bach und Frede (2002) kg N / ha LF

31 Institute of Landscape Ecology and Resources Management EU, OECD: Agri-sustainability indicator - environmental pressures (water, atmosphere) - waste of resources Effectiveness of policies: EU Nitrate Directive, national action programmes Verification of supra-national treaties, e.g. OSPARCOM Sustainability Strategy Program of the German Gouvernment: DUX-Indicator (German Environment Index) Trend of the national nitrogen surplus Component of National Gross Environmental Budget (UGR, Umwelt- ökonomische Gesamtrechnung), indicating the external costs of nitrogen losses into air, terrestrial ecosystems, surface waters, groundwater, sea WFD implementation: source appointment, prediction of efficiency of reduction measures Farm level: Optimization of N-management (tools e.g.: EMA in the UK; REPRO, QSL in Germany) Usage of nitrogen balance surplus


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