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 Suburbanization  Fernsehen  Anti-Trust Klage, Auflösung der vertikalen Integration  HUAC  Runaway Productions  Independent Producers  Farbe, Widescreen.

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Präsentation zum Thema: " Suburbanization  Fernsehen  Anti-Trust Klage, Auflösung der vertikalen Integration  HUAC  Runaway Productions  Independent Producers  Farbe, Widescreen."—  Präsentation transkript:

1  Suburbanization  Fernsehen  Anti-Trust Klage, Auflösung der vertikalen Integration  HUAC  Runaway Productions  Independent Producers  Farbe, Widescreen

2  Kalter Krieg  Atomare Aufrüstung  Korea Krieg  China wird 1949 kommunistisch  Isolationismus, Familie

3  Rückkehr zum Central Producer System  Dore Schary 1948 Chief of Production, Präsident  1951 Louis B. Mayer geht in Pension  25% Musicals (Arthur Freed)

4  Cinemascope: The Robe 1953  Kontroverse Themen:  Antisemitismus: Gentlemen‘s Agreement (1947)  Rassismus: Pinky (1949)  Location Shooting  Marilyn Monroe

5  Vertrieb von Produktionen von Hitchcock, Cagney, Lancaster  First major studio to invest in 3D (House of Wax)  Doris Day

6  Howard Hughes kauft 1948 RKO  1947: 28 Films  1952: 10 Filme  Trennung in Produktion und Verleih  Einstellung der Produktion 1957

7  Winchester 73 (1950)  James Stewart  MCA Lew Wasserman  50% des Gewinns  Stewart verdiente $ mit einem Film, der Universal $ kostete

8  produziert auch TV Shows  1954 bezieht MCA 54% seiner Einnahmen aus TV Shows (Alfred Hitchcock Presents)  1958 kauft MCA Universal

9  Monogram und Republic  Republic: John Ford Westerns: Fort Apache 1948, Rio Grande 1950  Johnny Guitar 1954  Monogram wird 1953 Allied Artists  Nachfrage für B-Western im Kino geht zurück (TV)

10  Samuel Z. Arkhoff  gegründet 54, umbenannt in AIP 56  Extremely low-budget, double-bills  Teenage Audience  Roger Corman

11  Package Unit System  1945: 40 Independent Companies  1947: 100 (inkl. Majors)  Samuel Goldwyn, David O. Selznick, Walter Wanger etc.

12  Gründe:  Share of the profit  Income taxes  Guide one's own career  Studios bauen Overhead-Kosten ab  Finanzierung, Marketing, Vertrieb  Kreativer Einfluss nimmt ab

13  Streik 1941  Natur-Dokus  Spielfilme: Treasure Island (1950), Story of Robin Hood (1952)  Eigene Vertriebsfirma Buena Vista 1953 gegründet

14  Für Fox:  I Was a Male War Bride 1949  Monkey Business 1952  Gentlemen Prefer Blondes 1953  Independent:  The Thing 1951 (produced by Hawks, directed by Nyby)  Big Sky 1951  Land of the Pharaohs 1955

15  Für UA:  Apache 1954  Vera Cruz 1954  Marty 1955  Sweet Smell of Success 1957  Elmer Gentry 1960

16  „entrepreneurial mode of film making“  Regisseure, Animateure und Stars werden Produzenten  1949: 20% der von den 8 Major Studios veröffentlichten Filme sind unabhängig produziert  1957: 58%  Oscar winner best picture independent productions:  On the Waterfront  Marty  Around the World in 80 Days  The Bridge on the River Kwai  1958: Gigi: Arthur Freed (independent producer)

17  Kinsey Reports 1948 und 1953  The Moon Is Blue 1953 Otto Preminger  Einer der ersten Filme die ohne PCA-Siegel gezeigt wurden  1956: Revision des Codes:  abortion, childbirth, drug addiction  Können nun gezeigt werden (mit Einschränkungen)  Some Like it Hot (1959)  Anatomy of a Murder (1950)

18  Farbe  Technicolor Corp.  Eastman Color  Farbfilme: leichter Rückgang zwischen 1955 und 58, Anstieg ab 59 ▪ Fox dreht ab 53 (fast) alle Filme in Farbe und Cinemascope  S/W: From Here to Eternity (1953), On the Waterfront (1954), Marty (1955)

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21  3D  House of Wax (1953) WB  Kiss Me Kate (1953)  Dial M for Murder (1954)  Cinerama  three cameras, three projectors, panoramic image, large, curved screen  This is Cinerama (1952)  How the West Was Won (1962)  It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World (1963)

22  Cinemascope  Aspect ratio, Bildformat

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24  Broadcasting TV  Theater TV  Subscription TV  Hollywood produziert TV Programm: Serien, Werbung, Nachrichten  Kauf von TV Stationen und Networks

25  Fernsehformate zur Bewerbung von Film:  Disneyland  Warner Bros. Presents  Twentieth Century-Fox Hour  Ende 1959: “78 % of network evening programming originated in Hollywood”  “Over 85 % of that were filmed”

26  1954: Disneyland ABC  Disney's Wonderful World of Color  ABC investiert in Disneyland  Disneyland TV-Serie  Mickey Mouse Club  Eigener Vertrieb: Buena Vista Distribution

27  billigere Arbeitskräfte  Interessante Location  Wetter  1950: 429 Filme insgesamt  1955: 305   1953: 34 Filme made abroad   unemployment in Hollywood   Italien, Frankreich, Ägypten, Afrika, Hong Kong  Quo Vadis, To Catch a Thief,   UK und viele westeuropäische Länder fördern US-Filmproduktion im eigenen Land 

28  Zuschauerrückgang wg. TV trifft Kinobesitzer am schwersten  weniger Filme, Majors bestimmen die Verleihbedingungen  first run theaters in big city downtowns  second run in urban neighborhoods  Viele Kinos am falschen Ort  Arthouse Cinemas

29  1957: 72 % unter 30  1. road show attraction  “visual spectaculars, epics, broadway adaptations, twice daily, advance booking”   2. first run/second run audience  well educated, controversial topics   3. big city and university town  art movies  frank and adult sexual content  art cinemas often played American films as well  4. working class, small town, teenage spectators  drive in  western and comedies, horror, SF, teen films

30  Musicals  MGM  integrated musicals  Arthur Freed Unit: Cedric Gibbons, André Previn, Vincente Minelli  Gene Kelly, Fred Astaire  An American in Paris 1951  Singin‘ In the Rain 1952  The Band Wagon 1953

31  „Stories of corruption, betrayal and violence“   Dark visuals  deep shadows  undiffused use of light  unusual camera angles  prison like bars   Asphalt Jungle 1950 John Huston  In A Lonely Place Nicholas Ray 1950  The Big Heat 1953  Kiss Me Deadly Aldrich 1955

32  Neue Welle von WK II Filmen  From Here to Eternity 1951  „Prostitution, homosexuality, veneral desease, affair between an enlisted man an officer's wife, brutality in peacetime in the army“  Dan Taradash, Buddy Adler, Harry Cohn, Fred Zinnemann  Burt Lancaster, Montgomery Clift, Frank Sinatra  Department of Defense (DOD)  Office Supervising Film Industry

33  : antikommunistische Filme  I Married a Communist 1950  Pickup on South Street 1953  Strangers on a Train 1951

34  „ Superwesterns”  „western that would be ashamed to be just itself, and looks for additional interests to justify its existence – an aesthetic, sociological, moral, psychological, political, or erotic interest, in short some quality extrinsic to the genre and which is supposed to enrich it.“ (Bazin)

35  Political: High Noon (1952)  Sociological: Shane (1953)  Psychological: Winchester 73 (1950)  Formal: The Far Country (1955)

36 A type of film "that depicted a virtuous individual (usually a woman) or couple (usually lovers) victimized by repressive and inequitable social circumstances, particularly those involving marriage, occupation, and the nuclear family" (Schatz, 235)  Familie  Sexualität  Douglas Sirk  Vincente Minelli

37  The Day the Earth Stood Still  Ängste der 1950er Jahre  Kommunismus, Atombombe

38  On the Waterfront 1954  Marty 1955  Blackboard Jungle 1955  12 Angry Men 1957  Shadows 1959  Mix of Italian neo-realism and method acting  Working class

39  Blackboard Jungle   Juvenile delinquency  Rock film  Horror film (I was a teenage...)  Clean teen (Pat Boone)   Juvenile delinquency Kefauver Committee  Rock around the clock Bill Haley  Best selling single 29 weeks  Jailhouse Rock 1957

40  Blackboard Jungle   Juvenile delinquency  Rock film  Horror film (I was a teenage...)  Clean teen (Pat Boone)   Juvenile delinquency Kefauver Committee  Rock around the clock Bill Haley  Best selling single 29 weeks  Jailhouse Rock 1957

41  Atomgefahr  The Thing, The Day the Earth Stood Still, Forbidden Planet  Kommunismus  Sexualität  USA-Europa, Entertainment – Kunst  Teenager


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