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English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 Mapping the multimodal genres of traditional and electronic newspapers John.

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Präsentation zum Thema: "English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 Mapping the multimodal genres of traditional and electronic newspapers John."—  Präsentation transkript:

1 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 Mapping the multimodal genres of traditional and electronic newspapers John Bateman, Judy Delin and Renate Henschel Document Design Conference 2004, Tilburg, January 23rd.

2 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 Overview of talk What is meant with ‘genre’? What is meant with a ‘multimodal’ genre? How can genres be mapped? –the GeM Project Application to newspapers and newspaper design Discussion: weaknesses and strengths of the transfer of newspaper editions to the web

3 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 Newspaper design... Randy Stano, graphics designer for the Miami Herald, cited in Stephen Ames (1989) Elements of Newspaper Design. “... we’ve got to make it easy for the readers.... [Most readers] want news quickly, easily and they want a lot of it. Yes, you get people who want the New York Times... type stories, but you’ve got to be able to break these stories up.”

4 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 Newspaper design... Suggestions : break into packages and subpackages using subheads, pulling out quotes to be set in headline type as graphic elements making a portion of the story into a sidebar “The reader needs as many points of entry into a package as are feasible.” (Stano)

5 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 genre : types of text, types of document how a collection of semiotic resources pattern together in order to fulfill recurrent, recogniseable social goals genre : applications The GeM Project: Genre & Multimodality empirical

6 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 Particular sources of inspiration Rob Waller: “The typographical contribution to language: towards a model of typographic genres and their underlying structures” PhD thesis Reading University (1988) Günther Kress and Theo van Leeuwen: Application of functional linguistic methods to multimodal documents Jim Martin and Jay Lemke: functional interpretations of genre spaces

7 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 : Corpus basics Required: structured, consistent, correct information for supporting empirical questions / hypothesis formation and hypothesis testing corpuscollection ‘raw’ texts source + annotation (annotated) empirical

8 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 TEI: Text Encoding Initiative CES: Corpus Encoding Standard XCES: XML version GEM annotation scheme

9 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 Multilayered annotation Many tools being developed for this kind of ‘enrichment’, and many more to come –XML: the Extensible Markup Language –W3C –‘Information-management’ companies ‘Linguistically’: what are reasonable/useful layers of annotation?

10 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 Waller’s (1988) model of document design

11 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 The GeM annotation layers Content structure Rhetorical structure Layout structure Navigation structure Linguistic structure

12 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 Relations between social practice and multimodal genre particular artefact: form and tools social practice established uses of the artefact developed modes of expression “genre” production constraints cultural embedding linguistic, layout, generic, design practices “virtual artefact”

13 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 The GeM annotation layers Content structure Rhetorical structure Layout structure Navigation structure Linguistic structure genre form

14 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 Annotation solutions adopted... –criteria for recognising units basic vocabulary of the page: images, signs, sentences, numbers,... layout units: hierarchy determined visually and by considering the degree to which elements ‘belong together’ rhetorical structure: traditional analysis according to Mann&Thompson’s rhetorical structure theory (RST) navigation units: elements pointing elsewhere in the document –XML representations throughout

15 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 GeM Corpus Entries

16 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 base units Layout Semantic Content RST segments navigational elements layout units Distribution of information across layers

17 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 base units Layout Semantic Content RST segments navigational elements layout units Distribution of information across layers

18 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 Working visually from the page, decompose the objects on the page in terms of their visual unity and relative mobility/independence Transform the page decomposition into a hierarchical structure Specify presentation information for units: e.g., font size, type, colour, image type, resolution, etc. Gradually transfer the implicit spatial information in the visual image to explicitly represented structural information Example: Derivation of layout structure

19 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10

20 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich

21 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich

22 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 provides a place for assigning specific information about the layout units contents given by collections of the base units of the page Complete layout structure

23 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 GeM layers: layout units Layout units content defined by cross references (xrefs) to base units Layout units contain typographical details common over the unit and its children Typographical information modelled on CSS and XSL:FO

24 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 Annotation solutions adopted –non-linear information positioning of layout units within a page is specified two-dimensionally with respect to a generalized page model the page model decomposes the page area into a hierarchy of grids specifying the grid for a page is part of the annotation task.

25 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 each sub-tree can additionally be assigned to a position in a hierarchically ordered page grid Complete layout structure + page model

26 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 Complete layout structure + page model

27 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 85% 5% 10% 14cm GeM layers: area model Layout units are related to identified elements of a hierarchical grid specified in the area model ... 16cm

28 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 The Guardian Web Version

29 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 The Guardian Web Version

30 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10

31 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10

32 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 Partial layout structure

33 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 Partial layout structure

34 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10

35 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 Types of content UK news International Business Comment G2 TV etc. Politics Reviews

36 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10

37 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10

38 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 News article Link to related report

39 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 Navigation menu by newspaper section

40 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 Navigation: Drop-down menus by newspaper section and time; general search Drop-down links to broader categories

41 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 Services

42 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 Navigation: front page and index

43 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 Navigation: list of titles of further articles

44 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 Daily Telegraph Daily Telegraph: Web version

45 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 Daily Telegraph

46 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 Daily Telegraph Daily Telegraph: Layout structure (partial)

47 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 Daily Telegraph Daily Telegraph: Layout structure (partial)

48 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 The Guardian Print version

49 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 The Guardian partial layout structure

50 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 The Guardian partial layout structure

51 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 Comparative layout structure print web

52 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 NEWS OF THE WORLD Web version

53 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 The SUN Print version

54 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 OLIVE SOFTWARE

55 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 Return of the ‘traditional’ document - even for the web? Why? –consideration of use of available access structures –task: organising and providing access to material selected rhetorical organisation sequence by topic vs. sequence by importance

56 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 Contrasting resources Web design for Guardian, Daily Telegraph and similar sites: –little use of space –technology limited (HTML tables with long columns; extensive scrolling required) Print design for all newspapers: –use of space as multidimensional indicator of newsworthiness and importance –off-loading cognitive load of access to spatial layout

57 English Applied Linguistics Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaften Fachbereich 10 Hypothesis... express multidimensional newsworthiness and importance while using this simultaneously as an access structure The virtual artefact constructed through these production practices and expression decisions may just not be able to:


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