Präsentation zum Thema: "Czernowitz – Chernivtsi The Austrian city development - history and meaning in the current cityscape of Chernivtsi by Jule Lienemeyer Centre for European."— Präsentation transkript:
1 Czernowitz – Chernivtsi The Austrian city development - history and meaning in the current cityscape of Chernivtsi by Jule LienemeyerCentre for European Studies, Lund University - Bo Larsson - Lund, November 2014
2 Czernowitz – Chernivtsi The Austrian city development - history and meaning in the current cityscape of Chernivtsi Chernivtsi before 1774ChernivtsiLembergSuceavaBefore Chernivtsi became Austrian, it belonged to the Principality of Moldavia. It was located on the former trade route L´viv – Suceava on the border of the Principality of Moldavia. This location favored the existence of Chernivtsi. Here the crossing over the river took place and Chernivtsi was the seat of the customs office. The first time Chernivtsi was mentioned was in an old customs statute of From this date on, the city counts its existence. Therefore, in 2008, Chernivtsi celebrated its 600th anniversary.
3 Czernowitz – Chernivtsi The Austrian city development - history and meaning in the current cityscape of Chernivtsi Chernivtsi after 1774The austrian city development of Chernivtsi began in 1774, when the house of Habsburg annexed the Bukovina and with it Chernivtsi.By that time Chernivtsi was a small village with about 350 families, and consisted of simple buildings with large areas for agriculture.The Habsburgs had chosen Chernivtsi as seat for the military government and started to expand Chernivtsi for that purpose.A first official documentation of Chernivtsi can be found in the Josephinische Landesaufnahme ( ), which was created by the Habsburgs to represent the countries of the monarchy, due to military reasons.In this map the former Springbrunnenplatz is already visible as the main crossroad of the village. Also the main road as part of the trade route L´viv – Suceava and four other roads, which belong to the oldest ones of the town and are part of the research project.^SpringbrunnenplatzKarte: Josephinische Landesaufnahme ( )Tafel XIII und XIX, M 1:10800Erstelldatum der Tafeln der BukowinaVerfasser und Auftraggeber: Kaiserin Maria Theresia
4 Chernivtsi 1787 - Road and plot structure Czernowitz – Chernivtsi The Austrian city development - history and meaning in the current cityscape of ChernivtsiChernivtsi Road and plot structureThe first street-network of Chernivtsi can be seen in the Pitzellischer Abgrenzungsplan (Delimitation Map).The map contains detailed information about the structure of the city, based on property boundaries. Thirteen years after the annexation the Austrians recorded all properties in Chernivtsi, in order to determine the ownerships and land divisions as the basis for a new land register.The map shows again the Springbrunnenplatz as focal point of the village and the main road passing the town in north-south direction. Furthermore the roads from the previous map: Bahnhofstrasse, Steile Gasse, Synagogengasse, Springbrunnengasse, Judengasse, and Dreifaltigkeitsgasse (german streetnames from the map of 1888).The oldest part of the town can be recognized by the small-sized plot structure east of Springbrunnenplatz around the Türkenbrunnenplatz, which was the center of trade in the old city.SpringbrunnenplatzTürkenbrunnenplatzÄltester Teilder StadtKarte: Pitzellischer AbgrenzungsplanErstelldatum 1787Verfasser und Auftraggeber: Pitzellischen Kommission unter dem österreichischen Rittmeister J. Pitzelli
5 Chernivtsi 1787 - Road and plot structure Czernowitz – Chernivtsi The Austrian city development - history and meaning in the current cityscape of ChernivtsiChernivtsi Road and plot structureThe Habsburgs started the development of Chernivtsi along the main road towards south up the hill.Until today this road runs through Chernivtsi like a backbone through its body.The first urban expansion occurs south of the oldest city center at Heilig-Kreuz-Platz. Here the Habsburg build the first administrative buildings and the first Catholic church of Chernivtsi.Further south along the main road, you can already see newly added plots at the later Rathausstraße.The roads leading to the suburbs and further towns, all start from Springbrunnenplatz as focal point of the city. They play an essential role for the development of the network of ways in Chernivtsi.Nach LembergSpringbrunnenplatzTürkenbrunnenplatzHeilig Kreuz PlatzNach Jassy,VorstädteZur Vorstadt RoschKarte: Pitzellischer AbgrenzungsplanErstelldatum 1787Verfasser und Auftraggeber: Pitzellischen Kommission unter dem österreichischen Rittmeister J. PitzelliNach Suceava
6 Czernowitz – Chernivtsi The Austrian city development - history and meaning in the current cityscape of ChernivtsiThe Pitzellische Abgrenzungsplan as ‚Footprint’ of the structure of the cityConclusion: The grown structure of plots and ways shown in the Pitzellischer Abgrenzungsplan) is the beginning and the basis of the urban development of Chernivtsi.Springbrunnenplatz
7 Chernivtsi 1820 – Topographical integration Czernowitz – Chernivtsi The Austrian city development - history and meaning in the current cityscape of ChernivtsiChernivtsi 1820 – Topographical integrationChernivtsi is located on a hill above the river Prut, embedded topographically on three sides. According to the topographical conditions the city spread mainly to the south and southeast.Springbrunnenplatz
8 Chernivtsi 1820 – Topographical integration Die Lage: Chernivtsi liegt von drei Seiten topographisch eingebettet auf einer Anhöhe oberhalb des Pruth. Entsprechend dieser Gegebenheiten entwickelt sich die Stadt hauptsächlich nach Süden und Südosten.Czernowitz – Chernivtsi The Austrian city development - history and meaning in the current cityscape of ChernivtsiChernivtsi 1820 – Topographical integrationThe natural boundaries determine the outline of the city. The land borders in the west, north and northeast are determined by a slope. To the southeast a creek determines the land borders.In the last 25 years ( ), the city has mainly condensed inside the borders. The major building volume is concentrated along the main road. Most parts of the city, except the oldest part, is moderately built-up.The new city squares created by the Habsburgs have been developed along the main road up the hill towards south. In this map, the later Ringplatz is already visible, as well as the Ausriaplatz with the k.k. Criminalgericht.SpringbrunnenplatzTürkenbrunnenplatzHeilig Kreuz PlatzRingplatzAustriaplatzKarte: Plan von Chernivtsi, 1:14.400Erstelldatum 1820/23Verfasser und Auftraggeber: Möglicherweise ein Geschenk an Kaiser Franz I zu seinem Besuch 1823 in Czernowitz (K. Scharr)
9 Chernivtsi 1849 – Capital of Bucovina Czernowitz – Chernivtsi The Austrian city development - history and meaning in the current cityscape of ChernivtsiChernivtsi 1849 – Capital of BucovinaThis map of Chernivtsi is part of the Administrationskarte von den Königreichen Galizien und Lodomerien, created 1855 in vienna.Here you can see how the city starts to expand towards south, following the existing urban structures.When Chernivtsi became capital of the Bucovina its political and cultural situation changed. The population is growing, more than people live in the city by that time.To meet the daily needs of the population, new housing is created and public buildings are erected: town hall, churches, synagogues, schools, hospitals, the post office and military installations. In the legend of the plan are 16 public buildings mentioned.For your orientation: the Austria Square is now located within the city structure.SpringbrunnenplatzTürkenbrunnenplatzHeilig Kreuz PlatzRingplatzAustriaplatzKarte: Administrationskarte von den KönigreichenGalizien und Lodomerien, Karte von Cz. M 1:10800Erstelldatum 1855, weitere 1863, 1883Verfasser Karl Kummerer; Verlag Andreas Juszynski, Wien
10 Chernivtsi 1912 – before World War One Czernowitz – Chernivtsi The Austrian city development - history and meaning in the current cityscape of ChernivtsiChernivtsi 1912 – before World War OneThis map from 1912 shows Chernivtsi shortly before the outbreak of the first world war, towards the end of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is one of the last maps before Chernivtsi belonged to Rumania.According to the census more than 84,000 inhabitants lived in Chernivtsi by that time. Of these, about 29,000 Jews, 15,000 Ukrainians and Poles and 13,000 Romanians and Germans.The city has more than 100 public institutions. As you can see in the plan, in relation to the size of Chernivtsi quite a lot.Most of these buildings line the streets and squares of the city until today and dominate the current city view of the historic city center.Many of them are considered landmarks of the city today.SpringbrunnenplatzHeilig Kreuz PlatzRingplatzAustriaplatzTürkenbrunnenplatzKarte: Plan von Czernowitz, M 1:5760Erstelldatum 1912, Verfasser: Städt. Ingenieur Ludwig WestVerlag von Leon König, Czernowitz
11 Czernowitz – Chernivtsi The Austrian city development - history and meaning in the current cityscape of ChernivtsiChernivtsi 2006This figure ground plan of Chernivtsi shows the dimensions of the city today. The historic city is in the center.The "footprint" of the Pitzellischer Abgrenzunsgplan shows the oldest city in relation to the rest of the city.One can read the urban development expanded mainly to the south and southeast of Chernivtsi: The socialist period with its open building structure as well as the dense, closed design of the Austrian and later the Romanian and early socialist architecture in the historic city center.
12 Czernowitz – Chernivtsi The Austrian city development - history and meaning in the current cityscape of ChernivtsiChernivtsi - Touristic map of thr inner city 2002