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Liszt's Interpretation of Schubert's Works: The Implications and the Value of his Transcriptions for Performances on Modern Pianos Liszt’s Bösendorfer.

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Präsentation zum Thema: "Liszt's Interpretation of Schubert's Works: The Implications and the Value of his Transcriptions for Performances on Modern Pianos Liszt’s Bösendorfer."—  Präsentation transkript:

1 Liszt's Interpretation of Schubert's Works: The Implications and the Value of his Transcriptions for Performances on Modern Pianos Liszt’s Bösendorfer (1873), Budapest Beth Chen

2 What could Schubert’s and Liszt’s notation processes tell us? What is the relation between Liszt’s transcriptions and Schubert’s original works? What is the value and what are the implications of Liszt’s transcriptions?

3 Schubert ( ) –drafts (mainly notes); details later in fair copies. Liszt ( ) - notes and a few articulation details; more details later in coloured pen in the same score or in the first edition. Notation process: Articulation, dynamic and expression markings.

4 Schubert Sonata in A, D. 959, first movement, bars 1-6 ed. Walburga Litschauer, 1996

5 Schubert: Der Leiermann Autograph is in the Pierpont Morgan Library, New York

6 ligato Schubert – Details

7 Liszt Rhapsody no. 19 Liszt Sonnetto No. 47 first edition first version ( )

8 Articulation, dynamic and expression markings were important parts of both composers’ musical presentation. Schubert’s and Liszt’s notation processes:

9 What could Schubert’s and Liszt’s notation processes tell us? What is the relation between Liszt’s transcriptions and Schubert’s original works? What is the value and what are the implications of Liszt’s transcriptions?

10 Generally faithful to Schubert's articulation, dynamic markings (apart from his added virtuosic or variation passages ) Schubert's details – Liszt further details Liszt’s transcriptions

11 Schubert Winterreise (manuscript 1827), Winterreise Part II, f. 12r (The Morgan Library) Faithful Transcription Con molto sentimento

12 Liszt letter to Lebert Oct, 1868 Liszt’s Briefe, II (ed. La Mara, 1894), p. 160 * Lebert was an editor for the firm of Cotta, Stuttgart. My responsibility with regard to Cotta’s edition of Weber and Schubert I hold to be: fully and carefully to retain the original text together with provisory suggestions of my way of rendering it, by means of distinguishing letters, notes, and signs.

13 Der stürmische Morgen

14 Schubert-Liszt Die Rose [Schubert, D 745]1833 Fantasie sur une valse de F. Schubert Lieder von Schubert Schwanengesang (14 pieces) Winterreise (10 pieces) Franz Schuberts geistliche Lieder (4 pieces) 1840 Sechs Melodien von Franz Schubert1844 Schuberts Märsche für das Pianoforte solo 1846 Die Forelle1846 Müllerlieder1846 Franz Schuberts Grosse Fantasie op (solo piano and orch.) Franz Schuberts grosse Fantasie op.15After 1851 (2 pianos) Franz Schuberts Märsche: 1 Vivace, b, 2 Trauermarsch, e, 3 Reitermarsch, D, 4 Ungarischer Marsch, d

15 Generally faithful to Schubert's articulation, dynamic markings (apart from his added virtuosic or variation passages ) Schubert's details – Liszt further details Liszt’s transcriptions

16 Further details marcato Schubert Liszt Schubert Liszt staccato

17 Schubert Wanderer-Fantasie

18 Liszt Grosse Fantasie

19 fz Der stürmische Morgen, bars 1-3 Schubert Liszt Further details

20 Guidance for both the music and technique Why did Liszt indicate these signs? Guidance particularly for technical hints

21 Notation only when possible - reliance on grammatical rules Often composers presented only limited details. 18 th -century and early 19 th –century notation

22 Dissonances are played stronger Interrupted cadence Notes lie outside the key, either consonances or dissonance C. P. E. Bach: Versuch ü ber die wahre Art das Clavier zu spielen (Part I, Berlin 1753)

23 Leopold Mozart: Versuch einer Gründlichen Violinschule (1756) Syncopation fp Metrical accentLong notes The highest notes Long notes

24 Quantz: Versuch einer Anweisung die flute traversière (1752/1789) Chapter XVII, section VI Of the Keyboard Player in Particular

25 Türk: Klavierschule (1789) Dissonant Syncopated note modulation Longer note; highest or lowest noteHarmony EMPHASES VI, § 15, p. 337 Prepare for dissonant interval

26 Liszt Abschied C C Liszt Schubert Frederic Chiu

27 Liszt’s use of these two accent signs in Abschied shows him indicating what Schubert did not or could not indicate. Different degrees of emphasis Emphasis on metrical accents

28 Leopold Mozart: Versuch einer Gründlichen Violinschule (1756) Syncopation fp Metrical emphasisLong notes The highest notes Long notes One has to continue in this way to emphasize the first note, until change becomes apparent. (trans. Andreas Blender)

29 Türk: Klavierschule (1789) Metrical Emphasis

30 H. Koch: Musikalisches Lexikon (1802) Der grammatikalische Accent

31 Hermann Mendel (1870) Musikalisches Conversations-Lexikon Accent

32 August Reissmann (1882) Handlexikon der Tonkunst Accent

33 Liszt Abschied C C Liszt Schubert Frederic Chiu

34 Schubert did not use He used >, fp, >fp, fzp>, fzp, and fz Liszt: one of his accent/emphasis signs

35 Liszt Abschied C C Liszt Schubert > ?

36 Technical emphasis (unindicated accents) 1. Metrical emphasis 2. First note in a slur

37 C. P. E. Bach (1753) C. P. E. Bach, Versuch, Versuch ü ber die wahre Art das Clavier zu spielen (Part I, Berlin 1753) Part I, III §21, 127 Die Fig V. befindlichen Noten spielt man so, daß der Anfang des Bogens mit dem Finger einen kleinen Druck kriegt. (a small accent) Slurs and gentle Accents

38 Durch den längern oder kürzern Bogen bestimmt der Komponist wie viele Töne an einander geschleift werden sollen […] Man merke hierbey noch, daß die Note, über welcher der Bogen anfängt, sehr gelinde (kaum merklich) accentuirt wird. (Türk, VI Part Three § 38, 355) Türk (1789) Slurs and gentle Accents

39 Der stürmische Morgen Schubert Liszt

40 Türk (1789)

41 C C Liszt Abschied

42 ten

43 Schubert: Mut

44 Snow falls on my cheek I carelessly brush it away If my heart speaks of its troubles I’ll drown it out with a happy song Barry Mitchell Sing' ich hell und munter Fliegt der Schnee mir ins Gesicht Schüttl' ich ihn Wenn mein Herz im Busen spricht Schubert Autograph Morgan L.Autograph herunter

45 What could Schubert’s and Liszt’s notation processes tell us? What is the relation between Liszt’s transcriptions and Schubert’s original works? What is the value and what are the implications of Liszt’s transcriptions?

46 The Value of Liszt’s Transcriptions Insight to interpret Schubert’s musical detail Insight for the possibility of further and clearer performing guidance.

47 The Implications of Liszt’s Transcriptions The existence of unindicated accents in music making The limit of past composer’s notations *The possible value of editorial editions

48 Beethoven Sonata op. 31/1, III 1846

49 Mozart, K. 330, 1 st mvt, bars 1-4

50 Thank you Sincere thanks to the National Széchényi Library and the Liszt Ferenc Memorial Museum for the Liszt facsimiles used in this presentation.


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