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Reform der Fischereipolitik Bewertung aus wissenschaftlicher Sicht Rainer Froese GEOMAR Meeresumwelt-Symposium 2014 03 June 2014, Hamburg, Germany.

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Präsentation zum Thema: "Reform der Fischereipolitik Bewertung aus wissenschaftlicher Sicht Rainer Froese GEOMAR Meeresumwelt-Symposium 2014 03 June 2014, Hamburg, Germany."—  Präsentation transkript:

1 Reform der Fischereipolitik Bewertung aus wissenschaftlicher Sicht Rainer Froese GEOMAR Meeresumwelt-Symposium June 2014, Hamburg, Germany

2 Übersicht Hauptergebnisse der Fischerei Reform Probleme bei der Umsetzung Neue Aufgaben der Fischereiforschung

3 GFP gültig seit Dezember 2013 Keine Rahmenrichtlinie, sondern direkt geltendes Recht in allen europäischen Mitgliedsländern

4 -- Bestände sollen größer als 40-50% der unbefischten Größe sein -- Der Fischereidruck soll bis 2015 entsprechend gesenkt werden Article 2.2 The CFP shall apply the precautionary approach to fisheries management, and shall aim to ensure that exploitation of living marine biological resources restores and maintains populations of harvested species above levels which can produce the maximum sustainable yield. In order to reach the objective of progressively restoring and maintaining populations of fish stocks above biomass levels capable of producing maximum sustainable yield, the maximum sustainable yield exploitation rate shall be achieved by 2015 where possible and, on a progressive, incremental basis at the latest by 2020 for all stocks. GFP Highlights

5 Negative Auswirkungen der Fischerei auf das Ökosystem sollen so gering wie möglich sein Article 2.3 The CFP shall implement the ecosystem-based approach to fisheries management so as to ensure that negative impacts of fishing activities on the marine ecosystem are minimised, and shall endeavour to ensure that aquaculture and fisheries activities avoid the degradation of the marine environment.

6 Ökosystem-basiertes Fischereimanagement ist gefordert Article 4.1 (9) 'ecosystem-based approach to fisheries management' means an integrated approach to managing fisheries within ecologically meaningful boundaries which seeks to manage the use of natural resources, taking account of fishing and other human activities, while preserving both the biological wealth and the biological processes necessary to safeguard the composition, structure and functioning of the habitats of the ecosystem affected, by taking into account the knowledge and uncertainties regarding biotic, abiotic and human components of ecosystems; GFP Highlights

7 Schonende Fischereimethoden sind gewünscht Article 4.1 (11) 'low impact fishing' means utilising selective fishing techniques which have a low detrimental impact on marine ecosystems or which may result in low fuel emissions, or both; GFP Highlights

8 Fisch-Erholungsgebiete sollen eingerichtet werden Article 8, Establishment of fish stock recovery areas 1. The Union shall, while taking due account of existing conservation areas, endeavour to establish protected areas due to their biological sensitivity, including areas where there is clear evidence of heavy concentrations of fish below minimum conservation reference size and of spawning grounds. In such areas fishing activities may be restricted or prohibited in order to contribute to the conservation of living aquatic resources and marine ecosystems. GFP Highlights

9 Kein Fang von Babyfischen Article 4.1 (17) 'minimum conservation reference size' means the size of a living marine aquatic species taking into account maturity, as established by Union law, below which restrictions or incentives apply that aim to avoid capture through fishing activity; such size replaces, where relevant, the minimum landing size; GFP Highlights

10 Kein Rückwurf von kommerziellen (quotierten) Arten Article 15 Landing obligation 1. All catches of species which are subject to catch limits […] shall be brought and retained on board the fishing vessels, recorded, landed and counted against the quotas where applicable […] GFP Highlights

11 Geld für Forschung und Innovation Article 27 Research and Scientific Advice 1. Member States shall carry out fisheries and aquaculture research and innovation programmes. They shall coordinate their fisheries research innovation and scientific advice programmes with other Member States, in close cooperation with the Commission, in the context of the Union research and innovation frameworks, involving, where appropriate, the relevant Advisory Councils. Those activities shall be eligible for funding through the Union budget in accordance with the relevant Union legal acts. GFP Highlights

12 2. Probleme bei der Umsetzung der GFP Die Strukturen in Gesellschaft, Politik, Verwaltung und Wissenschaft, die jahrzehntelang Überfischung geduldet, legalisiert, verwaltet, wissenschaftlich begleitet und gerechtfertigt haben, wurden bei der Reform nicht aufgearbeitet und nicht geändert.

13 ICES Advice 2015, westlicher Dorsch

14 ICES Advice 2015, westlicher Dorsch

15 Mit GFP nicht vereinbar

16 ICES Advice 2014, Nordsee Kabeljau

17

18 Neue Aufgaben der Fischereiforschung Nicht mehr Fang maximieren Nicht mehr Ausbeutung des Ökosystems maximieren (siehe “ICES Multispecies considerations for the central Baltic”) Stattdessen: Gute Fänge von gesunden Beständen mit geringsten Auswirkungen auf das Ökosystem Einbeziehung von Ökologie und Ökonomie: Warum sollen deutsche Fischer weniger verdienen als ihre Kollegen in Neuseeland?

19 Wie es richtig geht wissen wir seit 1957 Ray Beverton and Sidney Holt mit dem Yield-per-Recruit Model

20 Weniger ist mehr, wenn die Fischgröße stimmt Yield per recruit relative to the theoretical maximum yield, as a function of the F/M ratio, for different lengths at first capture, where L copt (solid curve) is the length that results in L opt as mean length in the exploited part of the stock and L cmax (dashed curve) is the length that results in maximum yield for the given F. Note that the curves for L cmax and L copt are overlapping. The long-dashed curve (L l ) is an example of yield-per recruit for North Sea cod, caught at the legal minimum landing size of 35 cm with a fishing mortality of nearly 2 M in F 0.1 marks a widely used precautionary level of fishing mortality [YpR_6.xlsx] (Froese et al. in prep)

21 Weniger ist mehr, wenn die Bestandsgröße stimmt Biomass per recruit relative to unexploited biomass, as a function of the F/M ratio, for three different lengths at first capture, where L copt (solid curve) is the length that results in L opt as mean length in the exploited part of the stock and L cmax (dashed curve) is the length that results in maximum yield for the given F. The long-dashed curve (L l ) is an example of biomass per recruit for North Sea cod, caught at the legal minimum landing size of 35 cm with a fishing mortality of nearly 2 M in F 0.1 marks a widely used precautionary level of fishing mortality. [YpR_6.xlsx] (Froese et al. in prep.)

22 Danke


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