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Dr. Matthias Kopetzky Research Project Gender & Corruption: Does the gender-mix in the workplace have a potential influence on corruption?

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Präsentation zum Thema: "Dr. Matthias Kopetzky Research Project Gender & Corruption: Does the gender-mix in the workplace have a potential influence on corruption?"—  Präsentation transkript:

1 Dr. Matthias Kopetzky Research Project Gender & Corruption: Does the gender-mix in the workplace have a potential influence on corruption?

2 Some strange questions? Is the fight against Corruption a main issue for internal audit? Does prevention has any meaning in corruption? Is there a difference between males and femals becoming perpetrators in corruption cases? Is the gender-mix in teams relevant for the likelyhood of developing a corruption scheme?

3 Some strange answers! Since years we repeated one question to collegues: Did you ever had a corruption case with one or more women as main perpetrators? At least in the DACH-Area (Germany, Austria and Switzerland) we received – sometimes to the surprise of the interviewed person – the same answer: No Cases We wanted to know on a broad, statistical base IIA Austria started a research project named Gender & Corruption

4 What did science find out in general on the role of women and men in corruption schemes? Study Gender and Corruption by Swamy et al (2000) 2 Women are less likely to be involved in bribery Corruption is less severe, when more women are present The LIMA-experiment in Peru Study Are Women really the fairer sex? (Dollar et al 2001) 3 the higher the representation of women in parliament, the lower the level of corruption. Study Investigating the role of gender over time (Frank and Schulze 2004) 4 The results reveal a higher willingness to comply among women… 2) see A. Swamy u. a., Gender and corruption, Journal of Development Economics 64, Nr. 1 (2001): 25–55 3) D. Dollar, R. Fisman, und R. Gatti, Are Women Really the, Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 46, Nr. 4 (2001): 423–429 4) Benno Torgler und Neven Valev, eScholarship: Public Attitudes toward Corruption and Tax Evasion: Investigating the role of gender over time, o. J., Fol ie 4

5 Recent research results from others Swamy et all from 2001 Using several independent data sets, we investigate the relationship between gender and corruption. We show using micro data that women are less involved in bribery, and are less likely to condone bribe taking. Cross- country data show that corruption is less severe where women hold a larger share of parliamentary seats and senior positions in the government bureaucracy, and comprise a larger share of the labour force. Fol ie 5

6 What did science find out in general on the role of women and men in corruption schemes? Study Gender and Corruption by Swamy et al (2000) 2 Women are less likely to be involved in bribery Corruption is less severe, when more women are present The LIMA-experiment in Peru Study Are Women really the fairer sex? (Dollar et al 2001) 3 the higher the representation of women in parliament, the lower the level of corruption. Study Investigating the role of gender over time (Frank and Schulze 2004) 4 The results reveal a higher willingness to comply among women… 2) see A. Swamy u. a., Gender and corruption, Journal of Development Economics 64, Nr. 1 (2001): 25–55 3) D. Dollar, R. Fisman, und R. Gatti, Are Women Really the, Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 46, Nr. 4 (2001): 423–429 4) Benno Torgler und Neven Valev, eScholarship: Public Attitudes toward Corruption and Tax Evasion: Investigating the role of gender over time, o. J., Fol ie 6

7 Recent research results from others Doller et al from 2001 Numerous behavioral studies have found women to be more trust-worthy and public-spirited than men. These results suggest that women should be particularly effective in promoting honest government. Consistent with this hypothesis, we find that the greater the representation of women in parliament, the lower the level of corruption. We find this association in a large cross section of countries; the result is robust to a wide range of specifications. Fol ie 7

8 What did science find out in general on the role of women and men in corruption schemes? Study Gender and Corruption by Swamy et al (2000) 2 Women are less likely to be involved in bribery Corruption is less severe, when more women are present The LIMA-experiment in Peru Study Are Women really the fairer sex? (Dollar et al 2001) 3 the higher the representation of women in parliament, the lower the level of corruption. Study Investigating the role of gender over time (Frank and Schulze 2004) 4 The results reveal a higher willingness to comply among women… 2) see A. Swamy u. a., Gender and corruption, Journal of Development Economics 64, Nr. 1 (2001): 25–55 3) D. Dollar, R. Fisman, und R. Gatti, Are Women Really the, Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 46, Nr. 4 (2001): 423–429 4) Benno Torgler und Neven Valev, eScholarship: Public Attitudes toward Corruption and Tax Evasion: Investigating the role of gender over time, o. J., Fol ie 8

9 Our Questions: Hypothesis 1: In less then 10% of the corruption cases women act as main perpetrators. Fol ie 9

10 Our Questions: Hypothesis 2: In corruption cases, which include women as perpetrators, those women play minor roles in comparison to their male comrades in the scheme. Fol ie 10

11 Our Questions: Hypothesis 3: The more women are working in a reviewed unit the less likely a corruption scheme may evolve. In women-only groups corruption tends to zero. Fol ie 11

12 Our Online-Survey Fol ie 12

13 Our Online-Survey Fol ie 13

14 Our Online-Survey Fol ie 14

15 Why did we start this? Important Question Based on individual experience Now make it scientific viable Possible strong Way of Prevention If stronger involvement of women in corruption prone areas could help prevent corruption Survey results interesting to many groups We see it as a chance for the national IIA´s to get strong publicity for this study Gender equality is a prime issue to many groups A surprising new Argument In the gender discussion In corruption prevention Fol ie 15

16 What did we find out on individual experience in cases of corruption? Our own experiences? No female involvement in cases Chance of Prevention? Just bring in more women? Q: Is Gender an issue if we look at the perpetrators? By Region? By median loss? Fol ie 16

17 The IIA-Austria Study different corruption schemes Diff. Typs of Cases Finished Suspicious 378 participants in the study Double commitment Fol ie 17

18 The IIA-Austria Study 2012 – Cases from Internal Auditors Relationship by Perpetrator, secondary Perpetrator and Whistleblower Fol ie 18

19 The IIA-Austria Study 2012 – Cases from Internal Auditors Direction of benefits Did perpetrators offer or accept benefits? Result More Cases with Acceptance Fol ie 19

20 The IIA-Austria Study 2012 – Cases from Internal Auditors Executives – The tone from the top Was the head of the department affected male or female? Internal oriented departments Purchase oriented departments Customer oriented departments Fol ie 20

21 The IIA-Austria Study 2012 – Cases from Internal Auditors Gender-Mix in affected departments What was the gender-mix in the involved departments? Fol ie 21

22 The IIA-Austria Study 2012 – Opinion of Internal Auditors Gender of potential perpetrator Are Male or Female more prone to corruptive behavior? Fol ie 22 Remember! Only 17,9% females in Europe

23 The IIA-Austria Study 2012 – Opinion of Internal Auditors Gender of the head of department Is the Gender of the head of a department influential to the risk, that a corruption case develops? Fol ie 23 Tone set by the Top

24 The IIA-Austria Study 2012 – Opinion of Internal Auditors Relevance of the Gender-Mix Is the Gender-Mix in a Department influential to the risk, that a corruption case develops? Fol ie 24

25 The IIA-Austria Study 2012 – Opinion of Internal Auditors Most risky Gender-Mix? What is the riskiest gender-mix in a department for corruption cases to develop? Fol ie 25

26 Conclusions (1) There are more males engaged in corruption cases The data of the analyzed cases show That there on average are much more males than females engaged in corruption cases That the head of involved departments, was male in the majority of cases this might also be caused by the fact, that there are still more males than females in leading positions. That there are relatively more female whistleblowers, but more men in absolute numbers. Fol ie 26

27 Conclusions (2) Opinion of participating Internal Auditors 88% believe, that males are more prone to corruption This supports our hypothesis, that females are hardly ever involved in corruption cases 34% believe, that the tone set by the top through the head of the department is relevant 28% are unsure and 38% don't share the opinion, that there's a gender issue 38% believe, that the gender mix in a department is relevant 24% are unsure and 38% don't believe, there's a gender issue s Internal Auditors have a clear idea, that the higher the number of males in the group, the higher the risk of corruption in the group. Fol ie 27

28 Conclusions (3) Prevention: Even if we don't know the causes The results suggest That engaging more females in areas vulnerable to corruption could have a containment effect Risk of such preventive activities is zero Cost of such preventive activities is zero In case of more Questions Dr. Matthias Kopetzky, CIA If you want to try the survey Fol ie 28

29 Mag. Dr. Matthias Kopetzky, CIA,CFE,CPA Active Job Position CEO of Business Valuation Gutachten- und Unternehmensberatung GmbH (seit 1998) Professional Experience Business Consultant Managerial positions in the IT Industry HFP-Auditors (Vienna) CEO of Business Valuation Gutachten- und Unternehmensberatung GmbH Permanent Expert Wittness in Austrian Courts Specialist all aspects of economic crime Engagements Member of the Board at IIA Austria Certified Fraud Examiner CFE und Mitglied der ACFE (Association of Certified Fraud Examiners) Certified Public Accountant CPA/Maine/US Certified Internal Auditor CIA und Mitglied des IIR (Institut für Interne Revision in Ö) Lecturer at various universities (Vienna, Wr. Neustadt, Innsbruck, …) Chair of Special Interest Group Economic Crime at the IIA-Austria Folie 29

30 Mag. Dr. Matthias Kopetzky, CIA,CFE,CPA Books and Articles Wells-Kopetzky: Handbuch – Wirtschaftskriminalität in Unternehmen (LexisNexis- Orac, Wien) Das Risikomanagement aus der Sicht der Internen Revision- Autorengemeinschaft (Linde) Hrsg: IIR Österreich Kopetzky, Matthias: Case 55 - Double Damage in Wells, Joe (Hrsg): Fraud Casebook – Learning from the bad side of Business (Wiley, 2007, N.J. USA) Kopetzky, Matthias: Neue Bedeutung der Korruption im Strafrecht in Fellmann/Klug: IKW-Band 116 – Vademecum der Korruptionsbekämpfung (2008, Kommunale Forschung Österreich) Kopetzky, Matthias: The Fraud Factor in The CPA Journal, April 2008, New York Kopetzky, Matthias: Schutz vor Mitarbeiterverfehlungen in Banken in Die gewerbliche Genossenschaft, Jg 136, Ausgabe 9-10/2008, S 20ff Folie 30

31 Mag. Dr. Matthias Kopetzky, CIA,CFE,CPA FH Wr. Neustadt Computerunterstütztes Controlling Beraterverhalten in krisenhaften Unternehmen FH Wien – Unternehmensführung Einführung in Prävention und Aufdeckung von Wirtschaftskriminalität für Betriebswirte Aufdeckung und Prävention von Wirtschaftskriminalität in Fallbeispielen Akademie für Interne Revision Wirtschaftskriminalität - Mein Unternehmen an der Nahtstelle zu Justiz und Polizei IIR – Institut for International Research Zertifizierter Bank-Innenrevisor Themenbereich Wirtschaftskriminalität in Banken "Interne Revision in der öffentlichen Verwaltung Kampf gegen die Korruption Compliance in der öffentlichen Verwaltung Hinweisgebersysteme Gefährdungsanalyse in der Finanzindustrie Gemeinsam mit Peter Zawilla (D) Sicherheitsakademie der Exekutive (BM f. Inneres) Betriebswirtschaftliche Grundlagen für die Erkennung und Bearbeitung von Wirtschaftskriminalität Fallstudien-Training – Erkennung und Dokumentation von Zahlungsunfähigkeit in Unternehmen Sachverständigenverband Tirol/Vorarlberg Unternehmensbewertung aus der Sicht des Gerichtssachverständigen Slovakische Bankenaufsicht Fraud in Banks (EU-Projekt) Wertpapieraufsicht der Volksrepublik China Anlagebetrug – Aufdeckung und Prävention (EU-Projekt) Raiffeisen Akademie 2-Tagesausbildung f. Interne Revisoren zum Thema Wirkungsvoller Malversations-Schutz für die Raiffeisenbank Frankfurt School of Finance & Management Mitarbeiterkriminalität: Methoden der Prävention und Sonderuntersuchung Dozent im Zertifikatsstudiengang Certified Fraud Manager CFM Dozent im Zertifikatsstudiengang Certified Compliance Professional CCP BIA – Büro für Interne Angelegenheiten (BM f. Inneres) Tagesseminar im Rahmen der 3-wöchigen Spezialausbildung zu Korruption: Korruptionsbekämpfung in der Privatwirtschaft (jährlich 2x) Institut Interne Revision Deutschland Vortrag Jahrestagung 2007 in Köln: Case Management in Fraud Untersuchungen Vortrag Jahrestagung 2008 in Berlin: Was KMU aus bekannt gewordenen Fraud Fällen lernen können Vortrag Mittelstandstagung Leipzig: Überlegungen zur Standardisierung von Fraudfall-Abwicklungen (mit Peter Zawilla/Bielefeld) IIA-Hungary - 3. Internationale CEE Konferenz Diversity of Auditing Vortrag Audit of Antifraud Management 2. Staatsanwälte Convent 2007-Mattsee (OSTA Linz) Der Sachverständige im Wirtschaftsprozess Arbeiterkammer Wien - IFAM Ausbildung von Aufsichtsräten zu Risiken im Bereich Wirtschaftskriminalität Sicherheitskompetenzzentrum der Sparkassen Schutz vor Mitarbeiterverfehlungen in Banken Folie 31 Presentations and Seminars


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