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Academic Writing FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte

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1 Academic Writing FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte
Professur für Alte Geschichte Academic Writing 1

2 1.) Academic Writing and Scientific Work
FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 1.) Academic Writing and Scientific Work 1.1 What is scientific work? 1.2 The Humanities 2.) Academic Writing 2.1 What is an academic paper? 2.2 Functions of an academic paper 2.3 What makes a good academic paper? 2.4 The structure of an academic paper 2

3 1. Academic Writing and Scientific Work 1.1 What is scientific work?
FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 1. Academic Writing and Scientific Work 1.1 What is scientific work? Science… … is searching for knowledge … builds up theories and tries to prove them … needs to produce testable and comprehensible results … consists of different operations: description, explanation, structuring, justification, evaluation, hypothesis-testing, connecting 3

4 …follows a certain methodology
FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Scientific work… …follows a certain methodology …is impartial, unbiased and free of all stereotypes …allows criticism 4

5 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg
Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 1.2 The Humanities - analysis and interpretation of different types of media (texts, images, films, audio-recordings) - considering aspects such as context, historical background, author, genre, … - different interests in knowledge 5

6 2.1 What is an academic paper?
FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 2. Academic Writing 2.1 What is an academic paper? an academic text that follows specific conventions  follows the traditional structure of a book  assumed readership: academic peer group  analytic and reflective writing style 6

7 2.2 Functions of an academic paper
FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 2.2 Functions of an academic paper working on a restricted topic working on a specific problem It shows that the writer can handle and reflect scientific problems  It is NOT just a summary of what you have read but includes critical consideration, review, evaluation and assessment 7

8 2.3 What makes a good academic paper?
FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 2.3 What makes a good academic paper? verifiable results comprehensible meaningful overall topic independent achievement (giving your own analysis and interpretation of sources and media) works with current research literature 8

9 Uses grammatically correct and stylistically appropriate language
FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Uses grammatically correct and stylistically appropriate language Is clear in terminology, structure and argumentation Evidence and sources support the main argument Evidence and sources are verifiable

10 2.4 The structure of an academic paper
FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 2.4 The structure of an academic paper a) The title page

11 b) Table of contents Headings and subheadings Page Numbers
FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte b) Table of contents Headings and subheadings Page Numbers Use the automatic table of contents in (e.g.) word The title page is counted as page 1, table of contents as page 2, but they are not numbered!

12 Defines the interest of the paper
FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte c) The introduction Defines the interest of the paper Makes clear why your topic is important States your main thesis Gives an overview of your methods and main sources Outlines the overall structure of your paper

13 - Not actually called “main body” in the table of contents
FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte d) The main body - Not actually called “main body” in the table of contents - Consists of all the chapters except introduction and conclusion - Follows a clear structure - Contains: An overview over recent research literature and scientific findings A theoretical framework for the topic you work with Chapters where you actually work with texts, theories, statistics,…and apply them to your topic

14 d) The main body What you should do:
FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte d) The main body What you should do: As far as possible, include primary sources (statistics, letters, diaries,…) Work with the latest research literature (magazine articles, research articles, monographs) Use your own words as far as possible Avoid stringing together quotes Avoid too long quotes Avoid generalizations, platitudes, stereotypes Only include information that you can prove Distinguish clearly between your ideas and the ideas of others

15 Should relate to your thesis
FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte e) The conclusion Should relate to your thesis Summarizes the results/ main points of your work No new information must be added What was the main insight of your work? What problems did you encounter? Are there any unresolved questions? Which further work could your topic require?

16 Distinguish between primary and secondary sources
FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte f) The bibliography Distinguish between primary and secondary sources Include all primary and secondary sources used in your work Do not include any sources that you haven’t used at least once in your work Stick to formal conventions for each of the different publication types Be consistent Alphabetical order

17  images, graphs, statistics,…
FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte g) The appendix  images, graphs, statistics,…

18 Times New Roman 12 pt or Arial 11 pt Footnotes: 10 pt.
FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Formal components Times New Roman 12 pt or Arial 11 pt Footnotes: 10 pt. 1.5 line spacing Blocksatz Margins: right: 2,5-3 cm; left: 2-2,5 cm; top: 2,5 cm, bottom: 2 cm Truthful declaration (not a part of the paper itself, therefore not included in the table of contents)

19 How to find literature and sources How to use citations correctly
FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Contents How to find literature and sources How to use citations correctly How to build your bibliography Exercises on compiling bibliographical entries

20 I. How to find literature and sources
FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte I. How to find literature and sources

21 Contents Library for English (07EN) and American (07AM) Studies
FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Contents Library for English (07EN) and American (07AM) Studies OPAC (Online Public Access Catalogue) Jstore MLA International Bibliography Google Books/ Google Scholar Wikipedia?

22 1. Library for English (07EN) and American (07AM) Studies
FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 1. Library for English (07EN) and American (07AM) Studies Search literature in OPAC Look around

23 2. OPAC (Online Public Access Catalogue)
Finding books Interlibrary loan FAUdok Find detailed instructions here: FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte

24 3. Jstore Search for essays
Only accessible with a university IP address Use a VPN tunnel to get access from your home computers FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte

25 4. MLA International Bibliography
Most important bibliography for Literature, Linguistics & Folkloristics Access via Uni Erlangen  OPAC  Databases Search for essays and books FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte

26 5. Google Books/ Google Scholar
Good for finding out whether a book or an essay is useful to you FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte

27 6. Wikipedia? What you can use it for: To get a quick overview
German and English articles are usually pretty good Look at the literature cited FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte

28 6. Wikipedia? Why you cannot use it as a reliable source:
Author of the article is not mentioned Author of the article can be anyone Articles usually show just one point of view Literature cited in articles not sufficient Articles may contain wrong or controversial information, but cite it as “truth” FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte

29 6. Wikipedia? conclusion:
Use it for general overview and check the literature cited Do not include information from Wikipedia in your papers Do not cite Wikipedia as a source If you find something interesting in Wikipedia, check the literature and cite that as your source instead FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte

30 II. How to use citations correctly
FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte II. How to use citations correctly

31 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg
Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 1. Essentials If you copy another author’s passage or use an another author’s idea, you have to name your source All citations must be relevant to your argument Do not include random citations Footnotes are used for explanatory notes and translations (not for reference) The full bibliographical entry is in your bibliography, in the text shortened references are used

32 2. Direct citation FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte
Professur für Alte Geschichte 2. Direct citation Correspond exactly to the original text Use quotation marks: “” Omissions marked as: […] Errors are not corrected, but followed by [sic] Foreign language citations must be reproduced in the original (translation in footnote) Citations longer than 3 lines: must be set apart from the rest of the text (without quotation marks) slightly indented single spaced smaller font size

33 2. Direct citation Author named in reference:
FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 2. Direct citation Author named in text: In his latest statements, J.R. Killjoy regretted “the never-ending Festschrift craze“ (120). Author named in reference: In his latest statements, he regretted “the never-ending Festschrift craze” (Killjoy 120). Author cited from indirect source: (Killjoy in Smartalleck 25)

34 Citing two or more texts by the same author: (Killjoy 1995, 13).
FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 2. Direct citation Citing two or more texts by the same author: (Killjoy 1995, 13). Citing two or more texts by the same author and with the same year: (Iser 1988a, 123).

35 Texts by two or three authors: All must be named named
FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 2. Direct citation Texts by two or three authors: All must be named named Texts by more than three authors: Name the first author and use the abbreviation et al.

36 2. Direct citation longer than 3 lines
FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte

37 3. Paraphrase of an author’s ideas Do not use quotation marks
FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 3. Paraphrase of an author’s ideas Do not use quotation marks Clearly indicate where paraphrase begins and ends

38 3. Paraphrase of an author’s ideas Do not use quotation marks
FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 3. Paraphrase of an author’s ideas Do not use quotation marks Clearly indicate where paraphrase begins and ends

39 III. How to build your bibliography
FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte III. How to build your bibliography

40 Contents Monographs Article in anthology Article in Journal
FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Contents Monographs Article in anthology Article in Journal Internet sources Films from DVD Online Videos

41 SURNAME, Name. Title. Subtitle. Edition. Place(s): Publisher, Year.
FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 1. Monographs SURNAME, Name. Title. Subtitle. Edition. Place(s): Publisher, Year. EAGLETON, Mary. Feminist Literary Theory: A Reader. 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell, 1996.

42 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg
Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 2. Article in Anthology SURNAME OF AUTHOR, Name of author. “Title of essay.” Title of anthology. Ed(s). Name and SURNAME of editor(s). Place(s): Publisher, Year. Pages. FRAILE MURLANCH, Isabel. “The Silent Woman: Silence as Subversion in Angela Carter’s The Magic Toyshop.” Gender, I- Deology. Essays on Theory, Fiction and Film. Eds. Chantal Cornut Gentille D’ARCY and Landa Jose Angel GARCIA. Amsterdam: Rodopi,

43 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg
Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 3. Article in Journal SURNAME OF AUTHOR, Name of Author. “Title of essay.” Name of Journal Volume (Year): Pages. WOLF, Werner. “Literaturtheorie in der Literatur: David Lodges Small World als kritische Auseinandersetzung mit dem Dekonstruktivismus.” Arbeiten aus Anglistik und Amerikanistik 14 (1989):

44 <http://www.lspace.org/books/apf/the-colour-of- magic.html >.
FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 4. Internet sources SURNAME OF EDITOR, Name of Editor, ed. “Title of Online Article.” Name of Anthology. Web. Date of Access. <URL>. BREEBAART, Leo, ed. “The Colour of Magic: Annotations.” The Annotated Pratchett File, v Web. 27 March 2014. <http://www.lspace.org/books/apf/the-colour-of- magic.html >.

45 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg
Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 5. Films from DVD Title of Movie. Dir. Name of Director SURNAME OF DIRECTOR. Perfs. Names and SURNAMES of Main Cast, Distributor, Year of Release. DVD. The Dark Knight. Dir. Christopher NOLAN. Perfs. Christian BALE, Heath LEDGER, Aaron ECKHART, Maggie GYLLENHAAL, and Gary OLDMAN. Warner Home Video, DVD.

46 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg
Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 6. Online Videos SURNAME OF AUTHOR, Name of Author. “Title of Video.” Name of Website. Name of Website’s Publisher. Date of Posting. Web. Date of Access. <URL>. WESCH, Mike. “Information R/evolution.” YouTube. YouTube. 12 Oct Web. 27 Aug <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-4CV05HyAbM>. If the author is unknown, do not use the poster’s username. Just begin with the title instead: Information R/evolution. YouTube. YouTube. 12 Oct Web. 27 Aug

47 IV. Exercises on compiling bibliographical entries
FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte IV. Exercises on compiling bibliographical entries

48 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg
Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Group I – Solutions: KLOSS, Heinz. Research Possibilities in the German-American Field. Hamburg: Buske, 1980. HANSEN, Christine. “Die deutsche Auswanderung im 19. Jahrhundert – ein Mittel zur Lösung sozialer und sozialpolitischer Probleme?“ Deutsche Amerikaauswanderung im 19. Jahrhundert. Sozialgeschichtliche Beiträge. Ed. Günter MOLTMANN. Stuttgart: Metzler,

49 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg
Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Group II – Solutions: JORDAN, Terry. German Seed in Texas Soil. Immigrant Farmers in Nineteenth-Century Texas. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1966. LUEBKE, Frederick C. “The German-American Alliance in Nebraska, ” Essays in the History of Immigration. Ed. Frederick C. LUEBKE. Urbana – Chicago: University of Illinois Press,

50 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg
Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Group III – Solutions: RIPPLEY, La Vern J. The German-Americans. Boston: Twayne, 1976. DOERRIES, Reinhard R. “The Politics of Irresponsibility: Imperial Germany’s Defiance of United States Neutrality during World War I.” Germany and America: Essays on Problems of International Relations and Immigration. Ed. Hans L. TREFOUSSE. New York: Brooklyn College Press,

51 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg
Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Group IV – Solutions: GRUBB, Farley. German Immigration and Servitude in America, London – New York: Routledge, 2011. HOERIG, Karl A. “The Relationship between German Immigrants and the Native Peoples in Western Texas.” The Southwestern Historical Quaterly 97, 3 (1994):

52 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg
Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Group V – Solutions: ETTE, Andreas/ SAUER, Lenore. Auswanderung aus Deutschland. Daten und Analysen zur internationalen Migration deutscher Staatsbürger. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, 2010. HEIDT, Erhard U. “‘The Krauts’ und ‘Die Amis’: Gegenseitige Stereotypen im Spiegel der Zeit.“ Die Deutsche Präsenz in den USA. The German Presence in the U.S.A. Eds. Josef RAAB and Jan WIRRER. Berlin: Lit Verlag,


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