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HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 HRM A: Work process design Overview.

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Präsentation zum Thema: "HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 HRM A: Work process design Overview."—  Präsentation transkript:

1 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 HRM A: Work process design Overview

2 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 Methods for the psychological analysis of work processes Different goals –Determination of pay schemes –Determination of requirments/qualification profiles –Asessment of job and organizational design during/after technological/organizational change –Humane work design Different levels of analysis –Human-technology interaction –Individual work tasks –Organization unit / work system –Firm –Interfirm processes Different perspectives –"objective" situational demands - Assessment by external experts –"subjective" personal perception - Assessment by workers themselves

3 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 Need to combine "objective" and "subjective" perspective Expert for the assessment of a work situation – external observer and/or workers themselves ? Objektive conditions and subjective re- interpretation of these conditions are relevant determinants of action Compensation of different kinds of biases (stemming from norms, needs, social context, different uses for data etc.)

4 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 Empirical methods Analysis of documents –Advantages: non-reactive, "condensed organizational knowledge" Disadvantages: not aligned with purpose of the investigation Written survey –Advantages: objective, applicable for large samples –Disadvantages: no control over the actual data collection, response biases Interview –Advantages: control over data collection, complex issues possible –Disadvantages: resource-intensive, interviewer influences Observation –Advantages: access to implicit knowledge, natural situation –Disadvantages: subjective meaning of the observed unknown, no control over the occurrence of the events under study

5 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 Work system analysis Description and evaluation of work processes in work systems based on criteria such as independence of work system, autonomy and transfer of uncertain information Data collection method: Interview and observation based on guidelines Support for assessment through scales with anchor descriptions or with lists of relevant characteristics

6 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 Method for job analysis Description and evaluation of work processes on the level of the individual task based on criteria such as learning opportunities and task completeness Data collection method: Observation with integrated interview Support for assessment through scales with anchor descriptions

7 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 Key element of work process analysis: Variance analysis Description of variance/ disturbance Cause of variance/ disturbance Source of variance/ disturbance - where did it happen? Where/by whom was variance/ disturbance discovered? Where/by whom was variance/ disturbance handled?

8 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 HRM A: Work process design Overview

9 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 Zwei Gesichter der Arbeit (Lewin, 1920) Arbeit ist einmal Mühe, Last, Kraftauf- wand. Wer nicht durch Renten oder Herrschaft oder Liebe versorgt ist, muss notgedrungen arbeiten, um seinen Lebensunterhalt zu verdienen. Arbeit ist unentbehrliche Voraus- setzung zum Leben, aber sie ist selbst noch nicht wirkliches Leben. Darum Arbeit so kurz und so bequem wie möglich! Wenn die Arbeit dazu gleich- förmiger und einseitiger werden muss, so schadet dies nichts, solange es ihrer Produktivität keinen Abbruch tut. Denn aller positiver Wert kommt dieser Arbeit nur indirekt zu, nur durch die wirtschaftlichen Vorteile, die sie dem Arbeitenden bietet. Die Arbeit ist dem Menschen unentbehr- lich in ganz anderem Sinn. Nicht weil die Notdurft des Lebens sie erzwingt, sondern weil das Leben ohne Arbeit hohl und halb ist. Dieses Bedürfnis nach Arbeit, die Flucht vor dauernden Müssiggang, die bei zu kurzer Arbeitszeit zur Arbeit ausserhalb des Berufs treibt, beruht nicht auf blosser Gewohnheit zu arbeiten, sondern gründet sich auf den 'Lebenswert' der Arbeit. Weil die Arbeit selbst Leben ist, darum will man auch alle Kräfte des Lebens an sie heran- bringen und in ihr auswirken können. Darum will man die Arbeit reich und weit, vielgestaltig und nicht krüppelhaft beengt. Der Fortschritt der Arbeitsweise gehe also nicht auf mögliche Verkürzung der Arbeits- zeit, sondern auf Steigerung des Lebens- werts der Arbeit, mache sie reicher und menschenwürdiger.

10 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 Psychosocial functions of work (Jahoda, 1984) material means of existence activity / competence structuring of time cooperation / social contact social approval sense of personal identity

11 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 Job design as crucial measure for personnel development Design of humane work tasks in order to further –health –competencies –personality based on the psychosocial functions of work

12 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 Criteria for humane work tasks (from Ulich, 1998)

13 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 Core characteristics of humane work: Complete tasks sequential completeness Cycle of goal setting, planning, execution, control and correction hierarchical completeness demands on action regulation at different levels of complexity (skill-, rule- und based actions) Reversal of tayloristic principles

14 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 The five principles of Taylorism 1.Separation of planning and doing –Responsibility for planning at management level; implementation as sole shopfloor responsibility 2."one best way" of task execution –Definition of the more efficient way of task execution based on scientific methods; every worker executes only one step in the overall task 3.Selection of the best person –Definition of qualification profile for each task step, selection of the appropriate person 4.Reduction of training –Training for the more efficient way of executing each task step, workers are easily replaced 5.Control –Surveillance of adherence to the prescribed work methods and of achievement of required results

15 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 Objectives of job design Autonomy: Self-determination regarding goals and rules for goal achievement. Control: Influence on situations in order to achieve goals which can be self-determined or determined by others. Prerequisite for effective use of control: Transparency and predictability of work situation.

16 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 Design rules regarding autonomy and control Control should be at a maximum. But: Management and staff positions can only provide indirect control via line employees. Control without autonomy is possible if strong identification with goals determined by others can be achieved. Autonomy without control contains high potential for frustration (e.g. staff functions without direct influence on the line of command)

17 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07

18 Effects of humane job design: Stress reduction Stress = a situation with demands that cannot be met by personal resources Important resources are –control (=means of influence): given (objective) and perceived (subjective) –qualification –social support

19 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 Stress at work: EU % of employees in 15 EU member countries answer that they suffer work-related stress Causes: Lack of control, e.g. regarding planning (35%), work duration (55%), time pressure (29%) Monotony Mobbing Job insecurity Effects: Heart diseases (Men:16%, women: 22%) Absenteeism (50-60%) Estimated costs 20 billion Euro

20 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 Stress at work: Switzerland 2002 (BfS, 2004) 44% of working people state that they suffer from severe work load. –Of these 27% indicate that they suffer physical symptoms. 11% of working people fear that they might lose their job. –Of these 37% indicate that they suffer physical symptoms.

21 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 Effects of humane job design: Furthering development of competencies and personality Results of longitudinal studies on the effects of job design changes: –E.g. Baitsch (1985): Increase in technical competencies, intellectual flexibility, social competence, and moral awareness Results of longitudinal studies in the general public –E.g. Kohn & Schooler (1982): Reciprocal interaction between intellectual demands of work andd intellectual development through processes of selection and socialization

22 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 Considering individual differences in job design Participative und differential-dynamic job design: Involvement in organizational change decisions and offer of choices regarding job design options allows for consideration of indiviual needs and competencies Job crafting: Opportunities for self-determined adaption of work tasks according to changing individual needs and competencies Management by Objectives (MbO): Systematic furthering of individual motivation through tailored goals and ways for goal achievement General objective: no fixation of individual differences, but individually tailored support

23 HRM A – G. Grote ETHZ, WS 06/07 Fundamental objective of job design Create conditions that support people in being capable (competence) and also wanting (motivation) to do their job well


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