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Drei Domänen des Lebens Unterschiede auf zellularer und molekularer Ebene definieren drei unterschiedliche "Domänen" Three Domains of Life Differences.

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Präsentation zum Thema: "Drei Domänen des Lebens Unterschiede auf zellularer und molekularer Ebene definieren drei unterschiedliche "Domänen" Three Domains of Life Differences."—  Präsentation transkript:

1 Drei Domänen des Lebens Unterschiede auf zellularer und molekularer Ebene definieren drei unterschiedliche "Domänen" Three Domains of Life Differences in cellular and molecular level define three distinct domains of life

2 Alle Zellen brauchen Kohlenstoff Konstruktionswerkstoff (1) Alle Zellen brauchen Energie Aufrechterhaltung des Betriebs(2) (1)Unterscheidung nach Kohlenstoffquelle CO 2 oder org. Verbindungen (2)Unterscheidung nach Energiequelle elektromagnetische Strahlung oder energiereiche Verbindungen (1)Autotrophe Heterotrophe (2)Phototrophe Chemotrophe Lithotrophe Organotrophe

3 Benutzen organische Nährstoffe aus organischen Kohlenstoffquellen. Heterotrophe Photo-Heterotrophe Energiequelle: Licht Chemo-heterotrophe Chemo-litho-heterotrophe Energiequelle: anorganische Oxidation purple non-sulfur bacteria, green non-sulfur bacteria and heliobacteria Nitrobacter spp., Wolinella (with H 2 as reducing equivalent donor), some Knallgas-bacteria Chemo-heterotrophe Chemo-organo-heterotrophe Energiequelle: organische Oxidation (Kohlenstoffverbindungen)

4 Bauen organische Nährstoffe aus anorganischen Kohlenstoffquellen auf. Kohlenstoffquelle: CO 2 (Atmosphäre, Wasser) Autotrophe Photo-Autotrophe Energiequelle: Licht Photosynthese zum Aufbau der Nährstoffe Chemo-autotrophe nur: Litho-autotrophe Energiequelle: anorganische Oxidation Brennstoffe: CH 4,NH 3, NH 4 +, H 2 S, Fe 2+, SO 3 2-, NO 2 -, … (alle oxidierbare Anorganik) Cyanobakterien grüne Algen grüne Pflanzen die meisten Bacteria und Archaea

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6 Lebende Systeme beziehen Energie Aus dem Sonnenlicht –Planzen –Grüne Bakterien –Cyanobakterien Aus Brennstoffen –Tiere –Die meisten Bakterien Die Energieaufnahme ist notwendig für den Erhalt der komplexen Strukturen und des dynamischen Gleichgewichts (steady state, stationärer Zustand), weit entfernt vom thermodynamischen Gleichgewichtszustand. Living Systems Extract Energy From sunlight –plants –green bacteria –cyanobacteria From fuels –animals –most bacteria Energy input is needed in order to maintain complex structures and be in a dynamic steady state, away from the equilibrium

7 In chemistry, a steady state is a situation in which all state variables are constant in spite of ongoing processes that strive to change them. For an entire system to be at steady state, i.e. for all state variables of a system to be constant, there must be a flow through the system (compare mass balance). One of the most simple examples of such a system is the case of a bathtub with the tap open but without the bottom plug: after a certain time the water flows in and out at the same rate, so the water level (the state variable being Volume) stabilizes and the system is at steady state. The steady state concept is different from chemical equilibrium. Although both may create a situation where a concentration does not change, in a system at chemical equilibrium, the net reaction rate is zero (products transform into reactants at the same rate as reactants transform into products), while no such limitation exists in the steady state concept. Indeed, there does not have to be a reaction at all for a steady state to develop.

8 In chemistry, a steady state is a situation in which all state variables are constant in spite of ongoing processes that strive to change them. For an entire system to be at steady state, i.e. for all state variables of a system to be constant, there must be a flow through the system (compare mass balance). One of the most simple examples of such a system is the case of a bathtub with the tap open but without the bottom plug: after a certain time the water flows in and out at the same rate, so the water level (the state variable being Volume) stabilizes and the system is at steady state. The steady state concept is different from chemical equilibrium. Although both may create a situation where a concentration does not change, in a system at chemical equilibrium, the net reaction rate is zero (products transform into reactants at the same rate as reactants transform into products), while no such limitation exists in the steady state concept. Indeed, there does not have to be a reaction at all for a steady state to develop.

9 Solarenergie als die ultimative Quelle aller biologischer Energie Kooperation phototropher und heterotropher Zellen

10 Yearly Solar fluxes & Human Energy Consumption Solar EJ Wind2250 EJ Biomass3000 EJ Primary energy use (2005)487 EJ Electricity (2005)56.7 EJ 1 EJ (Exa) = J

11 1 PW = 1 Petawatt = W

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