Präsentation zum Thema: "Case #1 - Nominative Case"— Präsentation transkript:
1Case #1 - Nominative Case What is the subject of a sentence? The subject of a sentence is the person or thing that is “doing” the verb. To find the subject, look for the verb and ask “Who or what is doing?” (substitute the verb for “doing” -- Who or what is singing? Who or what is sleeping?) Subjects are always in the NOMINATIVE CASE.
2The Nominative Case Pauley’s diction: The subject of a clause is said to be in the “nominative case.”Example: Der Junge geht(The boy (= the SUBJECT in the nominative case) is going.)
3Accusative CaseWhat is the direct object of a sentence? The direct object receives the action of the verb. To find the direct object, look for the verb and ask “Who or what is being verbed?” (as in Who or what is being kicked? Who or what is being read?) Direct objects take the ACCUSATIVE CASE.
4Verb TypesThe part of the clause that links the subject to an object is the VERB. Verbs that take an object are called TRANSITIVE verbs.Example: He opened the door.Not all verbs however can take an object.Verbs that do not take an object are called INTRANSITIVE verbs.Example: They arrived (i.e. you cannot “arrive” something!).
5The Accusative CaseThe direct object in a clause is the noun or pronoun that is affected “directly” by the subject of the verb.The direct object is in the accusative case.Example:“Der Junge schreibt den/einen Brief” (The boy is writing the/a letter)(= the DIRECT OBJECT in the accusative case)
6Side Note: The Accusative Case in English In English there are no special case endings for the accusative - the / a remain the same in both the nominative and accusative cases.English merely retains some nominative pronouns: I (acc. me), we (acc. us) etc.The direct object can however be easily identified by its position in the clause - it will always come after the subject.
7The Accusative Case in German In German objects can precede or follow the subject. It is the case endings and the verb endings that tell us which case is which.Example:Der Hund sieht die Katzen.(The dog sees the cats.)Den Hund sieht die Katzen.(The cats sees the dog.)
8The direct object answers the questions: Was (what)?undWen (whom)?NOTE: Who = wer
9ReviewThe woman sees the girl. The woman is the subject and is nominative. The girl is the direct object and is accusative. The girl sees the woman. The girl is the subject and is nominative. The woman is the direct object and is accusative. Barack Obama is the president. Barack is the subject and is nominative. The President is ALSO nominative because it follows “to be” (is).
10More review… They invited me. Paul hit the ball. Have you seen a Shakespeare play?He plays the piano.
11Compare the nominative to the accusative case. SubjectDirect ObjectNominativederdiedasAccusativedendiedasdenCompare the nominative to the accusative case.
12meinen, deinen, Ihren, ihren seinen/ihren/seinen unsren euren masculine feminine neuter pluraldereinkeindieeinekeinedaseinkeindie----keineNominativedeneinenkeinendieeinekeinedaseinkeindie----keineAccusativethe only differencemeinen, deinen, Ihren, ihrenseinen/ihren/seinenunsren eurenAccusativePossessiveArticles(later)
14‘haben’ Accusative Case – TIP #1 Den Die Das “direct object”. When the subject is paired with a verb such as , the sentence must have ato be complete.‘haben’“direct object”.Man hat etwas.One has something.
15Accusative Case – TIP #1By contrast, nouns following the verb SEIN will ALWAYS take the nominative case.Here is a man. Here is the man.Hier ist ein Mann. Hier ist der Mann.
16Remember, the direct object answers the questions: Was?undWen?
25Was? Wen? Was hast du? Was spielst du? Was kaufst du? Was siehst du? Wen siehst du?Wen liebst du?Wen kennst du?Wen fragst du?
26Der Mann küßt die Frau. Die Frau küßt der Mann. Wer küßt wen? The action is the same no matter what the word order. The man is performing the verb.“Der” is the nominative article for masculine nouns. It shows that the noun is the subject of the sentence.Wer küßt wen?
27Die Frau küßt den Mann. Den Mann küßt die Frau. Wer küßt wen? The accusative article “Den” shows that the man is the direct object of the action.The woman is the performer of the verb in both sentences.The article “den” answers the question “wen?”Wer küßt wen?
28PronounsThe nominative pronouns are: ich, du, er, sie, es, wir, ihr, Sie, sie. The accusative pronouns are mich, dich, ihn, sie, es, uns, euch, Sie, sie