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Prof. Dr. Alexander Trunk Vorlesung / Course Einführung in die Rechtsvergleichung Introduction to Comparative Law Winter term (WS) 2014-2015 http://eastlaw.uni-kiel.de.

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Präsentation zum Thema: "Prof. Dr. Alexander Trunk Vorlesung / Course Einführung in die Rechtsvergleichung Introduction to Comparative Law Winter term (WS) 2014-2015 http://eastlaw.uni-kiel.de."—  Präsentation transkript:

1 Prof. Dr. Alexander Trunk Vorlesung / Course Einführung in die Rechtsvergleichung Introduction to Comparative Law Winter term (WS)

2 27.10.2014: Basic questions and structures of comparative law
optional lecture on the legal position of women in China : Methods of comparative law [in addition: guest lecture on Russian constitutional law] : Methods of comparative law (cont.) : German legal famliy (deutscher Rechtskreis) : French legal family 28./ optional possibility to participate in conference „Settlement of international trade disputes in/with countries of the region of Caucasus/Central Asia“ (Landeshaus Kiel) : Anglo-American legal family : The legal systems in Northern and Eastern Europe : Legal systems in Asia : Religious laws : Law of contract (contracts law) : Law of torts :  Property law - Sachenrecht (date under reservation) : Commercial law (date under reservation) : Civil procedure and arbitration

3 Discussion on presentation of Dr
Discussion on presentation of Dr. Gerasimova last week: Russian constitutional law and ECHR Which subject? How was it structured? Which legal provisions were used? Which court practice? Which legislative activities? Which elements of comparative law? Which information did we get? What else would we like to know? How can we get this knowledge? Any critical remarks? What could have been done better?

4 Notion and object of comparative law
Differences between legal orders Comparative law (Rechtsvergleichung (droit comparé) = science of comparing national and assimilated legal orders Object: law of all legal disciplines. Here: Comparison in the field of civil law.

5 Tasks of comparative law
Scientific function  Forensic-practical function Legislative function Problem of guiding interests and and expected outcomes, in particular in case of „legal transplants“/processes of „reception“ of foreign law

6 Historical sketch Aristoteles, Platon
Middle Ages: universalist legal orders Modern Ages: natural law doctrine; rise of comparative law in the 19th century: = Comparative law as an instrument of legal politics (e.g. AGHGB 1861) = 1846 Chair of comparative criminal law at Paris Sorbonne University = 1869 foundation of the Société de législation comparée = J. Story, W. Burge, W. Mittermaier, J. Foelix Intensive use of comparative law since mid 20th century (UN-suborganisations, EU and others).

7 Neighbouring disciplines
History of law Sociology of law Economic analys of law Legal politics (e.g. unification of law) Private international law (including procedure) Others, e.g. Legal ethnology, legal philosophy

8 Institutions of comparative law
scientific institutions, e.g. International Academy of Comparative Law, universities, research institutes (e.g. Max Planck Institutes, European Law Institute) practitioners‘s associations, e.g. IBA mixed scientific-practitioner associations, e.g. German-American Law Association, German Russian Law Institute international organizations (e.g. UNCITRAL, Unidroit, EU).



11 Legal literature Overview monographs (e.g. Zimmermann/Reimann, Zweigert/Kötz), „Casebooks“, introductions into the law of particular countries, comparative studies on specific topics Law journals: e.g. British International and Comparative Law Quarterly, American Journal of Comparative Law, (German) Zeitschrift für vergleichende Rechtswissenschaft, (Austrian) Zeitschrift für Rechtsvergleichung, Revue internationale de droit comparé, … Internet!! LexisNexis, Westlaw, HeinOnline, Garant.

12 Welcome to Westlaw International
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17 Jurisprudence in foreign and comparative law
Comparative law journals and foreign law journals with overviews of jurisprudence or individual decisions Germany: „IPRspr.“ (German courts) See also „IPG“ (expert opinions of German universities on foreign law) LexisNexis, Westlaw, HeinOnline Internet!

18 Veröffentlicht im Auftrag des Deutschen Rates für Internationales Privatrecht von Prof. Dr. Dr.h.c. Jürgen Basedow, Prof. Dr. Dagmar Coester-Waltjen und Prof. Dr. Heinz-Peter Mansel IPG – Gutachten zum internationalen und ausländischen Privatrecht

19 Citation techniqe German sources: as usual (LLM and Erasmus students see course by Dr. Panych) Foreign sources: in principle according to the standards of the source country. e.g. Laws in original title with date of adoption and entering into force, last amendment, official bulletin, auxiliary: Internet (last consulted on …). Example literature: Collins, L., Some Aspects of Service out of the Jurisdiction, 21 ICLQ 656 (658 f.) Example jurisprudence: Cass Civ, , Bull Civ I Nr. 72

20 Methods of comparative law
Cognizance of foreign law. If possible work in original language. Object of comparative research: = Comparison of legal norms – comparison of legal practice = Macrocomparison - microcomparison: „legal families“ (Rechtskreise)“ Central elements of comparison: „functional“ approach. Knowledge of „one‘s own law‘ as precondition. Precaution with use of „well-known“ own terms or legal structures.

21 Steps of comparison 1) Formulate the research question
2) Find applicable legal norms or jurisprudence. Quote exactly! 3) Common elements 4) Differences 5) Which are the underlying (possibly divergent) value judgments? 6) Make your own evaluation 7) Consequences, e.g. proposal de lege ferenda

22 Test: the introductory example
You work in a German enterprise, which intends to set-up an establishment in Ukraine. The enterprise would like to use its German-based general contract terms also in its relations to Ukrainian customers and asks whether this is possible. You have to check the German terms on the basis of Ukrainian law, in particular art.634 of the Ukrainian Civil Code. Compare with Art.305 – 310 German Civil Code

23 Art.634 Ukrainian Civil Code (2003): Contract of adhesion
(1) A contract of adhesion is a contract the terms of which are set by one of the parties in forms or other standard formats and which may be concluded only by way of the other party joining the proposed contract as a whole. The other party may not propose its own contract terms. (2) The joining party can request modification or termination of the contract if the contract deprives it of its usual rights under such contracts, excludes or restricts the liability of the other party or contains other provisions obviously burdensome for the joining party. … (3) If a claim to modify or terminate a contract is brought forward by a party joining it in connection with its business activity, the other party may refuse to satisfy these claims if it proves that the joining party was aware or could be aware of the provisions of the contract.

24 Art.428 russisches ZGB (1994): Beitrittsvertrag
(1) Als Beitrittsvertrag ist ein Vertrag anzusehen, dessen Bedingungen von einer der Parteien in Formularen … bestimmt worden sind und von der anderen Partei nicht anders als im Wege des Beitritts zum angebotenen Vertrag im Ganzen angenommen werden können. (2) Die dem Vertrag beigetretene Partei ist berechtigt, die Aufhebung oder die Änderung des Vertrages zu verlangen, wenn der Beitrittsvertrag … dieser Partei Rechte entzieht, die gewöhnlich in Verträgen dieser Art eingeräumt werden, die Haftung der anderen Partei für den Verstoß gegen Verpflichtungen ausschließt oder einschränkt oder andere für die beigetretene Partei offensichtlich belastende Bedingungen enthält, die diese, ausgehend von ihren vernünftig verstandenen Interessen, nicht angenommen hätte, wenn sie die Möglichkeit gehabt hätte, an der Festlegung der Vertragsbedingungen teilzunehmen. (3) Liegen die in Ziff.2 dieses Artikels bestimmten Umstände vor, so muss dem Verlangen nach Aufhebung oder Änderung des Vertrages, die von der beigetretenen Partei in Verbindung mit der Ausübung ihrer unternehmerischen Tätigkeit vorgebracht wurde, nicht nachgekommen werden, wenn die beigetretene Partei wusste oder wissen musste, zu welchen Bedingungen sie den Vertrag abschließt.

25 German laws in English translation: http://www. gesetze-im-internet
Section 305: Incorporation of standard business terms into the contract Section 307: Test of reasonableness of contents Section 308: Prohibited clauses with the possibility of evaluation Section 309: Prohibited clauses without the possibility of evaluation Section 310: Scope of application: also entrepreneurs, but more flexible

26 Comparison Comparative Questions Ukrainian law German law
Notion of general contract terms Application between traders Control of inclusion into contract Control of contents: specific clauses, general clause approach Which law is more favourable or „better“? Ukrainian law Please try to fill out yourself! German law Please try to fill out yourself!

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