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Prevention of sexual violence between teenagers - Findings and experiences from Germany Prof. Dr. phil. Michael Herschelmann ( Faculty of Social Work and.

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Präsentation zum Thema: "Prevention of sexual violence between teenagers - Findings and experiences from Germany Prof. Dr. phil. Michael Herschelmann ( Faculty of Social Work and."—  Präsentation transkript:

1 Prevention of sexual violence between teenagers - Findings and experiences from Germany Prof. Dr. phil. Michael Herschelmann ( Faculty of Social Work and Health)

2 2 Emden – in the middle of Europe

3 3 Study programmes Social Work (BA) Social and Health Management (BA) Interdisciplinary Physiotherapy – Psychomotoric – Occupational Therapy (BA) Inclusive Education in Early Childhood (BA) Social Work and Health in the context of social cohesion (MA) University of Applied Sciences Emden/Leer, Germany Topics of research Children, youth and family Child protection Voluntary commitment Prevention of substance abuse Community work Health promotion (esp. work place health promotion) Children of mentally ill parents Biography research Vocational training research Evidence based therapy … FACULTY OF SOCIAL WORK AND HEALTH

4 4 Where I come from, too:

5 5 The Child Protection Centre Oldenburg (www.kinderschutz-ol.de) Help in case of … Child maltreatment Neglect Sexual violence Domestic violence Help guaranteed Free of charge Confidential Without waiting Organization: Association to Prevent Child Maltreatment Oldenburg e.V. Membership: The Federal Association of Child Protection Centres Germany

6 6 1.Sexual violence between teenagers in Germany: Basic Findings 2.Prevention of sexual violence: Strategies and concepts 3.Practical examples: Methods and projects Content

7 7 1.Sexual violence between teenagers in Germany: Basic Findings 2.Prevention of sexual violence: Strategies and concepts 3.Practical examples: Methods and projects Content

8 8 Current studies Federal Centre for Health Education (2016) Repeat Survey: Youth Sexuality 2015 every 4 years, since 1980 representative sample 14-25 year olds n= 5750 Question: „Has a boy or man ever tried to get you to be engage in sex or intimacies against your will by pressurizing you?“ Female: 20 %, Male: 4 % (Experiences: 26 % sexual intercourse, 32 % Kisses/Petting, 50 % defence) Main perpetrators:  (Ex) boyfriend in an steady relationship  New acquaintance  Friend, schoolmate, colleague (Heßling/ Bode 2015)

9 9 Current studies Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMWF)/ University Medical Center Ulm/ University Frankfurt Study: Sexual violence in youth service organisations Survey 2013-2015 15-22 year olds n= 322 Sexual harassment: e.g. verbal/nonverbal derogatory sexual remarks Sexual assault without penetration: e.g. touching on breast, vagina, penis Sexual assault with penetration: anal, oral, vaginal with fingers, penis, objects More girls and boys with at least one experience during life time: Female: 36 % Male: 21 % (25 % with penetration/ 29 % both: victims and offenders) Main perpetrators in residential youth welfare services:  Other children and youth in the services  Friend/ Acquaintance  Partners (Rau/ Allroggen 2016, Rau 2015)

10 10 Current studies University of Applied Sciences Fulda Study: Teen Dating Violence (TeDaVi) 2012-2013 Pupils in Hessen 14-18 year olds n= 462 Questions: Has one of your steady friends or one of your dates … - put pressure on you to do sexual acts you don‘t want? f: 22,4 % m: 7,5 % - put pressure on you to make sex? f: 18,1 % m: 10,5 % - forced you with violence to do sexual acts you don‘t want? f: 6,0 % m: 1,7 % - forced you with violence to make sex? f: 3,8 % m: 3,5 % Perpetrators:  Dates and partners (Blättner et al. 2015a, Blättner et al. 2015b)

11 11 1.Sexual violence between teenagers in Germany: Basic Findings 2.Prevention of sexual violence: Strategies and concepts 3.Practical examples: Methods and projects Content

12 12 Different preventions: common objectives! (Antonovsky/ Franke 1997, Herriger 1997/ 2001, Herschelmann 2001/ 2010)

13 13 Life Skills  an individual’s social skills for coping with everyday life as well as risk situations  an individual’s latent personal resources  the resources within an individual’s formal and informal social support groups  the support available from people, groups and organisations in an individual’s immediate surroundings  the management of personal environments, „growing spaces“ where positive attitudes and life skills can be nurtured  the support available from people, groups and organisations in an individual’s immediate surroundings  the management of personal environments, „growing spaces“ where positive attitudes and life skills can be nurtured (Sielert 1995, Herschelmann 2001)

14 14 Sexual education as prevention „Sexual education which integrates the body, the speech and all senses is the best kind to develop life-skills. To know and feel more your own body, to be able to talk about different sexual topics and the perception of a great variety of feelings is not only a contribute to identity development and to the promotion of self- confidence, but also defend girls and boys against sexual violence.“ (Christa Wanzeck-Sielert) (Herschelmann 2001)

15 15 Sexual violence Theoretical Model: Risk and protective factors concerning sexual violence (Neil Malamuth, University of California) Several studies from adolescence In parts representative samples 10-years-longitudinal study Selfreports and reports from partner (vgl. Kindler 1999, 2003)

16 16 Hostile masculinity Impersonal sexual orientation Lack of empathy Sexual violence Risk factors for sexual violence: Sexual violence (Schewe/ O’Donohue 1993, Kindler 1999, Kade 2003)

17 17 Sexual Violence and Masculinity constructions of „traditional (hegemonic) masculinity“ (Connell 2006) influences the perception/ coping of the use of sexual violencesexual violence (Herschelmann 2001)

18 18 1.Sexual violence between teenagers in Germany: Basic Findings 2.Prevention of sexual violence: Strategies and concepts 3.Practical examples: Methods and projects Content

19 … curious? then come to Boys-Talk! for boys who want everything know about love, sexuality and manhood (Herschelmann 2001, 2004, 2005, 2010)

20 or: how boys become man... A project only for boys! (Quelle: Lebert 1999)

21 21 The Iceberg Modell of Feelings (Quelle: Boys-Talk. A program for young men about masculinity, non-violence and relationships. Written by Brook Friedman. Published by Men Against Sexual Assault. Adelaide/Australia 1996.)

22 22 The Iceberg Modell of Feelings (Quelle: Boys-Talk. A program for young men about masculinity, non-violence and relationships. Written by Brook Friedman. Published by Men Against Sexual Assault. Adelaide/Australia 1996.)

23 23 Quiz game: „The first time …“ Practical example: methods (Quelle: Spanjard, H./ ten Hove, O. 1993)

24 (Neutzling/ Fritsche 1992)

25

26

27

28

29 29 „Love-Friendship-Sexuality“ contraception young parents diseases dirty mind 69‘er be unfaithful fidelity rape bursting condomes porno allergy to latex sex addiction sex with parents sex normal Kamasutra gang bang Swinger-Club Tantra erotic games prostitution Viagra masturbation exhibitionism nymphomaniac Boys topics: transsexuality hermaphrodism transvestism sex accidents vaginal cramp sex with alcohol oral intercourse anal intercourse nudism sado-maso penis large best friend (Herschelmann 2001)

30 30 „Love-Friendship-Sexuality“ How to become a girlfriend (boyfriend) Love relationships Endearment Sexuality Best friends Conflicts in relationships Sexual harassment Sexual violence … Topics and activities in the Work Group: Flirt course Talking and story telling Playing games Reading comics Watching films Doing sports Asking experts (e.g. Urologist) … (Herschelmann 2001)

31 31 Situations of sexual harassment? Practical example: methods (Herschelmann 2001)

32 32 Is this sexual harassment? Look on the following situations. Decide what they describe: Sexual harassment (a) Inappropriate behaviour, but not sexual harassment (b) Acceptable behaviour (c) 1.A group of boys call a girl often „slut“ 2.A boy asks a girl for making love with him and she says „no“ 3.A boy asks a girl again and again for making love with him and she always says „no“ 4.After sports lessons the boys try to look in the changing rooms of the girls 5.A group of boys call one boy „homo“ and „gay“ 6.A girl and a boy make mutual sexual intimations 7.In the changing room one boy pulls down the pants of an other boy against his will 8.A group of boys tease a girl who has big breasts (Quelle: Boys-Talk. A program for young men about masculinity, non-violence and relationships. Written by Brook Friedman. Published by Men Against Sexual Assault. Adelaide/Australia 1996. Revised by Michael Herschelmann)

33 33 (One ) Definition of „sexual harassment“ Any form of unwanted, forced conduct of a sexual nature, derogative sexual remarks, sexist jokes and degrading, sexualized comments about body or behaviour. (Münder/ Kavemann 2000)

34 34 Phil und Cindy Practical example: methods (Quelle: Boys-Talk. A program for young men about masculinity, non-violence and relationships. Written by Brook Friedman. Published by Men Against Sexual Assault. Adelaide/Australia 1996. Revised by Michael Herschelmann)

35 35 The story of Phil und Cindy Phil and Cindy are a couple since two months. They go to the same school where they have met. Phil often spends his leisure time with his friends who visit the same school and who are important for him. Together they have a lot of fun, playing basketball, watching films and go to partys. Girls are the main topic. However he never had made love with a girl before, but he absolute want to do it and has Cindy clearly told it. There are only few boys with sexual experiences but these guys tease the other and make jokes that they would not yet be men. In the evening Phil und Cindy go to a party with a lot of beer. Cindy is dressed with a sexy, low-cut dress. After some drinks she became tired and wanted to lie down. She suggested Phil that they could both lie down together. Some friends recognized this and wished Phil: „Have fun!“. Phil saw his chance but remembered that Cindy with her girl friends recently backbited a boy who was to quick and and got into enormous trouble. Phil is torn between stop and go and thinks about what he should do now. (Herschelmann 2001)

36 36 1.Should Phil now make love with her? Why?/ Why not? 2.What would Phil from your point of view do when he not loved her? Is there a difference if Phil would love Cindy, or not? 3.Has the question if Phil should make love with her something to do with being a „real man“? Why?/ Why not? 4.Does the low-cut dress matters? 5.Has the suggestions to lie down together an influence to the situation? 6.What would Cindy think if he would do it? How would she feel? 7.What would you do in this situation? How would you feel? Questions I (Herschelmann 2001)

37 37 Same story, two different views - Phil‘s story „I still don’t understand what happened. Cindy and I had been dating for about two months and even though we hadn’t slept together yet, I had made it clear that I really liked her and eventually wanted to have sex with her. We were supposed to go to a party and when she showed up in this sexy, low-cut dress I thought maybe this was her way of saying she was ready. At the party, we drank some alcohol, which made her sort of sleepy. When she said she wanted to go lie down and have me come snuggle with her, what was I supposed to think? Of course I thought she wanted to have sex. Okay, she did grumble a bit when I started to undress her, but I just figured she wanted to be persuaded. Lots of girls feel funny about being too forward and want men to take charge of sex. I don’t know. We had sex and it was fine. I took her home from the party and I thought everything was OK. But, ever since then, she refuses to talk to me or go out with me. I thought she really liked me. What happened?”

38 38 “I’ll never forget that night. Phil and I had been dating a while and he had always acted like a perfect gentleman – well, we had done our share of kissing and stuff but he never gave me any reason not to trust him. The night of the party, I wore this gorgeous dress that I borrowed from my roommate. It was a little flashier than I normally wear but I thought it looked great. At the party, I had some pre-mixed vodka-based drinks and they made me really tired, so I wanted to lie down. Maybe I shouldn’t have suggested we both lie down together but it felt weird to go upstairs by myself and leave Phil all alone. The next thing I knew, he was all over me, forcing me to have sex with him. It was horrible. I didn’t want to scream and make a fool of myself with all those other people in the next room. I tried to fight him off but he was too strong. Needless to say, I never want to see Phil again. He seemed like such a nice guy. What happened?” Same story, two different views - Cindy‘s story

39 39 Questions II Has Cindy agreed? If yes, how do you know that? Has Cindy have had a choice? Has the alcohol consumption of Cindy an influence on the behaviour of Phil? How? Is a relationship for some time reason enough to insist on sex? How feels Cindy after this situation? Has Phil Cindy forced? Is this rape? (Herschelmann 2001)

40 40 Questions II: Answers Is this rape? Yes, because …  she has resisted  he has forced her  she has had fear for disgrace herself  he was too strong  she will never forget this evening No, because …  she has said nothing, that is to say she agreed  she hasn‘t cried  she only grumbled  the „resistance“ could be a play  she wants to lie down  she wore a low-cut dress (Herschelmann 2001)

41 41 © Imago Where come the answers from?

42 42 Homepage for teenagers: Practical example: projects (http://www.spass-oder-gewalt.de/)http://www.spass-oder-gewalt.de/

43 43 Homepage for teenagers: Practical example: projects (http://www.was-geht-zu-weit.de/)http://www.was-geht-zu-weit.de/

44 44 Interactive Exhibition: „Echt krass“ (Petze Kiel) Practical example: projects (http://www.petze-institut.de/projekte/echt-krass-ab-klasse-8-und-jugendhilfe/)http://www.petze-institut.de/projekte/echt-krass-ab-klasse-8-und-jugendhilfe/

45 45 Theatre Practical example: projects (http://www.tpw-osnabrueck.de/?page=tritt.html&rank=8&urank=28)http://www.tpw-osnabrueck.de/?page=tritt.html&rank=8&urank=28

46 46 Thank you for your attention! Practical example: projects

47 Prevention of sexual violence between teenagers - Findings and experiences from Germany Prof. Dr. phil. Michael Herschelmann ( Faculty of Social Work and Health)

48 48 Literature Antonovsky, Aaron/ Franke, Alexa (1997): Salutogenese: zur Entmystifizierung der Gesundheit. Tübingen. BAG Die Kinderschutz-Zentren (2006): Kinder und Jugendliche mit sexuell grenzverletzendem Verhalten – gefährlich oder gefährdet? Köln. Blättner, Beate/ Liepe, K./ Schultes, Kristin/ Hehl, Lieselotte/ Brzank, Petra (2015a): Grenzüberschreitendes Verhalten und Gewalt in Liebesbeziehungen unter Jugendlichen: Prävalenz und Lebensqualität unter Hessischen Schülerinnen und Schülern. In. Gesundheitswesen 2015; 77; 895-900 Blättner, Beate/ Schultes, Kristin/ Hehl, Lieselotte/ Brzank, Petra (2015b): Grenzüberschreitungen und Gewalt in Teenagerbeziehungen. Risiken und Folgen für Präventionsstrategien. In: Prävention und Gesundheitsförderung 2015; 10; 173-179 Connell, Robert W. (2006): Der gemachte Mann. Konstruktion und Krise von Männlichkeiten. 3.Auflage. Wiesbaden Herriger, Norbert (1997): Empowerment in der Sozialen Arbeit. Eine Einführung. Stuttgart, Berlin, Köln. Herriger, Norbert (2001): Prävention und Empowerment. Brückenschläge für die pädagogische Arbeit mit Jugendlichen. In: Freund, T./ Lindner, W. (Hrsg.): Prävention. Zur kritischen Bewertung von Präventionsansätzen in der Jugendarbeit. Opladen. S. 97-111. Herschelmann, Michael (2010): „Und wenn ich mal ‘n Problem hab“ - Möglichkeiten sozialpädagogischer Jungenprojekte in Kooperation von Schule und Jugendhilfe. In: Klein, Christine/ Schatz, Günther (Hrsg.): Jungenarbeit präventiv! Vorbeugung von sexueller Gewalt an Jungen und von Jungen. Reinhardt: München. S. 90-110. Herschelmann, Michael (2005): Subjektorientierte Jungenarbeit. Anforderungen an Praxis und Wissenschaft am Beispiel des Projektes „Crazy“. In: Pech, D. / Herschelmann, M. / Fleßner, H. (Hrsg.): Jungenarbeit. Dialog zwischen Praxis und Wissenschaft. S. 21-38. Oldenburg. Herschelmann, Michael (2004): „Boys-Talk“: Prävention sexueller Gewalt mit männlichen Jugendlichen. In: Prävention. 7. Jg. H. 3. S. 13-15. Herschelmann, Michael (2001): Prävention sexueller Gewalt mit männlichen Jugendlichen. Theoretische Grundlagen und praktische Erfahrungen. Dargestellt am Beispiel des Unterrichtsprojektes „Liebe - Freundschaft - Sexualität“ an der Hauptschule Ofenerdiek in Oldenburg. Oldenburg. Heßling, Angelika/ Bode, Heidrun (2015): Youth Sexuality 2015. The outlook of 14-25-year-olds. A report of the findings. Results of the current representative survey. Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung, Köln. Kade, Susanne (2003): Jungen- und männerzentrierte Prävention sexueller Gewalt. Ein Überblick. In: Z.Sexualforsch. Jg. 16. 32--50. Kindler, Heinz (1999): Ursachen und Hintergründe sexualisierter Gewalt durch Jungen. In: Amyna e.V. (Hg.): „Die leg ich flach!“ Bausteine zur Täterprävention. München. S. 29-44. Lebert, Benjamin (1999): Crazy. Roman. Köln. Münder, Johannes/ Kavemann, Barbara (2000): Sexuelle Übergriffe in der Schule. Hinweise für Schulleitungen und Schulaufsicht und Schulberatung zur Wahrnehmung des sexuellen Selbstbestimmungsrechts von Schülerinnen und Schülern. 1. Aufl., Hamburg Neutzling, Rainer/ Fritsche, Burkhard (1992): „Ey Mann, bei mir ist es genauso“. Cartoons für Jungen, hart an der Grenze vom Leben selbst gezeichnet. Volksblatt, Köln. Rau, Thea (2015): Befragung von Jugendlichen zu sexueller Gewalt in Einrichtungen der Jugendhilfe und Internaten in Deutschland. In: Sozial Extra, H.5, S.38-40. Rau, Thea/ Allroggen (2016): Sexualisierte Gewalt unter Jugendlichen (in Einrichtungen). Empirische Basis für das Handeln von Fachkräften in der Praxis (http://www.wildwasser-wiesbaden.de/files/dr._thea_rau_sexuelle_gewalt_unter_jugendlichen_fachtag_wildwasser_wiesbaden_27.06.2016.pdf) Schewe, P.A./ O’Donohue, W. (1993): Sexual abuse prevention with high-risk males: The role of victim empathy and rape myths. In: Violence and Victims, 8, 339--351. Sielert, Uwe (1995): Prävention: Erfahrungen, Mythen und Möglichkeiten. In: Landesinstitut für Schule und Weiterbildung (Hg.): Prävention von sexuellem Mißbrauch und sexueller Gewalt gegen Mädchen und Jungen. Dokumentation der Fachtagung. Soest. S. 11-16. Spanjard, H./ ten Hove, O. (1993): Prävention sexueller Gewalt gegen Jungen und Mädchen. Landesjugendamt. Münster.

49 49 Contakt University of Applied Sciences Emden-Leer Faculty of Social Work and Health Prof. Dr. Michael Herschelmann Constantiaplatz 4 26723 Emden Germany Tel.: +49-4921-807-1244 E-Mail: michael.herschelmann@hs-emden-leer.de


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