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1 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING www.wing-vechta.de Housing Systems in Laying Hen Husbandry.

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Präsentation zum Thema: "1 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING www.wing-vechta.de Housing Systems in Laying Hen Husbandry."—  Präsentation transkript:

1 1 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING Housing Systems in Laying Hen Husbandry - Development, present situation and perspectives - Hans-Wilhelm Windhorst IEC Statistical Analyst Paper presented at the IEC 2015 Business Conference Lisbon, April , 2015

2 2 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING Objectives To summarise the history of the development of housing systems To classify and characterise the housing systems To compare the advantages and disadvantages of the housing systems in relation to animal welfare To provide an overview of the share of the various housing systems in the EU and on a global level

3 3 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING Development of housing systems - A short overview -

4 4 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING A short history of the development of housing systems for laying hens The early days: free range systems ( until 1930) The beginning of modern market oriented egg production (1930 – 1960) The spatial dissemination of intensive egg production between 1960 and 2000 From 2000 to the present: animal welfare a new driving force

5 5 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING Extensive egg production on a family farm (about 1930) (Source: ALB-Hessen, Informationsbericht 18)

6 6 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING Cage battery (3 tiers; capacity 108 hens) with manure belt (about 1940) (Source: Arndt 1941, p. 316)

7 7 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING Barn system with automatic feed chain and linear watering lines (1955) (Source: WING photo collection)

8 8 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING One tier flat deck system in California (about 1960) (Source: WING photo collection)

9 9 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING A-frame battery with deep pit manure storage (1960) (Source: WING photo collection)

10 10 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING Cage battery with automatic feed chain, nipple drinkers, manure belt and automatic egg collection (1990)

11 11 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING Large colony nest system, J. S. West Farms California Source: WING photo collection

12 12 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING Classification of housing systems

13 13 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING Cage systemsNon-cage system Conventional cages  Flat deck  A-frame  Battery Barn or floor-management  Without outdoor access  With outdoor access Enriched or furnished cagesAviaries  Without outdoor access  With outdoor access Colony nests  Small  Large Free range or open run  Conventional  Organic Classification of housing systems

14 14 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING Cage systems Conventional cages: enclosures with welded wire mesh sloping floors Flat decks: one-tier cage systems; origin in California; in Europe used until about 1960 Enriched (furnished) cages: in addition to conventional cages: perches, nest boxes, litter area are installed Colony nest systems: offer more space to the hens and are higher to allow perches on different levels

15 15 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING One-tier flat deck

16 16 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING A-frame battery with deep pit manure storage (1960) (Source: WING photo collection)

17 17 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING Cage battery with automatic feed chain, nipple drinkers, manure belt and automatic egg collection (1990)

18 18 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING Large colony nest system (60 hens) (Source: WING photo collection)

19 19 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING Non-cage systems (1): are housing systems without confined devices which allow the hens most of their basic natural behaviour. Barn or floor management systems are always one level systems in which the ground floor is either totally or partly covered with litter. They can be organised with or without outdoor access. Aviaries are always multi-level systems without and with outdoor access.

20 20 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING Non-cage systems (2): Outdoor or free run systems: Conventional and organic free run systems only differ in the stocking density within the hen house: 9 versus 6 birds per m 2. The available space both sub-systems is 4 m 2 per hen, a maximum of hens/ha must not be surpassed. The outside area is mostly covered with grass and should offer bushes, trees or shelter to protect the birds against predators, rain, bright sunshine or cold. Outdoor systems find their limits in cold climates with low temperature and a lasting snow cover.

21 21 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING Barn System with litter and slatted floor, automated feed chain, nipple drinkers and manure belt underneath the slatted floor (Source: WING photo collection)

22 22 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING Multi-level aviary with litter and slatted floor (Source: WING photo collection)

23 23 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING Free range system with range and protecting bushes (2014) (Source: WING photo collection)

24 24 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING Advantages and disadvantages of the various housing systems in relation to animal welfare

25 25 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING AdvantagesDisadvantages Low risk of diseases and infection with parasites Comparatively low mortality Comparatively low risk of feather pecking and cannibalism Low risk of bumblefoot Reduced air pollution Very limited available space per hen Strict limitation of species specific normal behaviour High risk of bone fractures resulting from osteoporosis during depopulation Lacking ability to escape from bullying fellow hens Conventional cages

26 26 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING AdvantagesDisadvantages Low risk of diseases and infection with parasites Comparatively low mortality Higher space availability, especially in colony nest systems, allow fulfilment of some, not all, natural behaviour patterns Better bone strength Low risk of bumblefoot Risk of increase of feather pecking and cannibalism in non beak- trimmed groups of brown genotypes Substantial use of perches may result in keel bone damage Increase of dust resulting from scratch mats and litter provision Problems of depopulation in large colony nest systems with increased risk of bone fractures Furnished (enriched) cages

27 27 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING AdvantagesDisadvantages Higher space availability enables hens to express most species specific normal behaviour patterns Increased bone strength Higher space availability enables submissive hens to avoid contacts with aggressive fellow hens High risk of parasitic diseases and infections due to contact with faeces High risk of foot pad dermatitis resulting from wet litter Increased risk of bone fractures through collision with perches or nests High risk of feather pecking and cannibalism Subordinate hens may have limited access to feed and water Increase of dust resulting from litter Barn systems without outdoor access

28 28 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING AdvantagesDisadvantages Same advantages as in barn systems without outdoor access Ability to forage and dust bathing in range Same as in barn systems without outdoor access High risk of predation Increased risk of infections with internal parasites High risk of introduction of highly infectious diseases through contact with wild birds Outdoor or free run systems

29 29 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING Synopsis of the comparison: All presently used housing systems have advantages and disadvantages. Main argument to ban conventional cages: limited space per hen that does not permit basic species specific behavioural patterns. The ethics of animal treatment that have developed in Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand cannot simply be transferred to other parts of the world with completely different ethical backgrounds.

30 30 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING Overview of the share of the various housing systems in the EU and on a global level

31 31 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING Share of housing systems in EU laying hen husbandry (2013) (Source: MEG 2014)

32 32 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING Share of housing systems in laying hen husbandry in EU member countries (2013) (Source: MEG 2014)

33 33 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING Share of housing systems in global laying hen husbandry Source: WING

34 34 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING Share of housing systems in European laying hen husbandry Source: WING

35 35 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING Share of housing systems in global laying hen husbandry (2012/2013) Source: WING

36 36 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING Perspectives

37 37 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING The examples of the EU, California and Switzerland show that: only when food security is no longer a problem, animal welfare can gain in importance, only in such countries a change in the attitudes of society towards keeping animals can be initiated.

38 38 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING It remains to be seen, whether the animal welfare discussion which was the main driving force behind the banning of cages and changes in housing systems will spread to other countries and continents. First indicators of such a change can be observed in the USA, Canada, New Zealand and Australia.

39 39 Dr. Aline Veauthier Wissenschafts- und Informationszentrum Nachhaltige Geflügelwirtschaft – WING Thank you for your attention!


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