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Bohrtechnik Kap. 14 Neue Technologien

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1 Bohrtechnik Kap. 14 Neue Technologien
International Geothermal Center Hochschule Bochum Lehrveranstaltung Bohrtechnik Kap. 14 Neue Technologien Prof. Rolf Bracke Dipl.-Ing. Volker Wittig WS / 13 PrideTexas

2 Übersicht Neue Technologien Aufgaben einer Bohrabteilung
Überblick über den Bohrprozess Bohrwerkzeuge Bohrstrang / Hakenlast Antrieb (Kelly / Topdrive) Verrohrungskonzept Kontrolle des Bohrlochverlaufs / Richtbohren Spülungssystem, -typen und Verlustbekämpfung Preventer und Kickbekämpfung Technische Messungen Zementation Auswahl des Bohrturmes/Anforderungen an Bohrplatz Aufbau eines Zeit-Teufendiagrams Neue Technologien

3 Neue Technologien Coil Tubing: Auf der Spule kontinuierlich
gerollter Bohrstrang keine Probleme mit Verbindern Bohrstrang wird plastisch verformt  Materialermüdung Bohrstrang rotiert nicht  Bohren mit Bohrlochmotor Injector drückt den Bohrstrang in das BohrlochSnubbing Kein Bohrturm nötig sehr kleiner Footprint 1“-4“ Coil Tubing üblich

4 Coiled Tubing CT continuous string of tubing on a reel Ø > 2 m
tubing Ø ¾ - 4“ (19 – 100 mm) wall size appr. 2 – 6 mm (¼“) > m length manufactured σ appr. 380 – 840 N/mm² Tubing doesn´t rotate Coiled Tubing (CT) has been defined as any continuously-milled tubular product manufactured in lengths that require spooling onto a take-up reel, during the primary milling or manufacturing process. The tube is nominally straightened prior to being inserted into the wellbore and is recoiled for spooling back onto the reel. Tubing diameter normally ranges from 0.75 in. to 4 in., and single reel tubing lengths in excess of 30,000 ft. have been commercially manufactured. Common CT steels have yield strengths ranging from 55,000 PSI to 120,000 PSI. CT STRING DESIGN The length of CT on a reel varies depending on diameter. For comparison, a small reel may only be able to hold 4,000 ft. of 2 7/8 in. tubing, but may have a 15,000 ft. capacity if 1 1/2 in. tubing is spooled on it. A properly sized CT string must have the following attributes for the planned operation: 􀁠Enough mechanical strength to safely withstand the combination of forces imposed by the job 􀁠Adequate stiffness to RIH to the required depth and/or push with the required force 􀁠Light weight to reduce logistics problems and total cost 􀁠Maximum possible working life

5 History + Development 1944 project „PLUTO“ (pipeline under the ocean) gasoline from the UK to EU with continous pipelines (>10 m) >1960: CA oil company had a 1st complete CT unit, to wash out sand in pipes / casing / wells ( m length) After that increasing standard in oil and gas industry The development of coiled tubing as we know it today dates back to the early 1960's, and it has become an integral component of many well service and workover applications. While well service/ workover applications still account for more than 75% of CT use, technical advancements have increased the utilization of CT in both drilling and completion applications. The ability to perform remedial work on a live well was the key driver associated with the development of CT. To accomplish this feat, three technical challenges had to be overcome: 􀁠A continuous conduit capable of being inserted into the wellbore (CT string). 􀁠A means of running and retrieving the CT string into or out of the wellbore while under pressure (injector head). 􀁠A device capable of providing a dynamic seal around the tubing string (stripper or packoff device). CT ORIGIN Prior to the Allied invasion in 1944, British engineers developed and produced very long, continuous pipelines for transporting fuel from England to the European Continent to supply the Allied armies. The project was named operation "PLUTO", an acronym for "Pipe Lines Under The Ocean", and involved the fabrication and laying of several pipelines across the English Channel. The successful fabrication and spooling of continuous flexible pipeline provided the foundation for additional technical developments that eventually led to the tubing strings used today by the CT industry. In 1962, the California Oil Company and Bowen Tools developed the first fully functional CT unit, for the purpose of washing out sand bridges in wells.

6 Schematic funktion + main components of CT
The ability to perform remedial work on a live well was the key driver associated with the development of CT. To accomplish this feat, three technical challenges had to be overcome: 􀁠A continuous conduit capable of being inserted into the wellbore (CT string). 􀁠A means of running and retrieving the CT string into or out of the wellbore while under pressure (injector head). 􀁠A device capable of providing a dynamic seal around the tubing string (stripper or packoff device). The stripper (sometimes referred to as a packoff or stuffing box) provides the primary operational seal between pressurized wellbore fluids and the surface environment. It is physically located between the BOP and the injector head. The stripper provides a dynamic seal around the CT during tripping and a static seal around the CT when there is no movement. The latest style of stripper devices are designed with a side door, that permits easy access and replacement of the sealing elements, with the CT in place. (From ICOTA website)

7 Guide Arch Injector Head Coiled Tubing Power Pack Control Cabin Tubing
Reel BOP Picture from ICOTA Intro web site The four BOP rams, from top to bottom and their associated functions are: 􀁠Blind ram - seals the wellbore when the CT is out of the BOP 􀁠Shear ram - used to cut the CT 􀁠Slip ram - supports the CT weight hanging below it (some are bi-directional and prevent the CT from moving upward) 􀁠Pipe ram - seals around the hanging CT

8 Basic drilling / BHA components of a CT rig
hydraulic DTH hammer possible

9 „DOE“ Micro hole technology with CT
Hole Ø in comparison: standard slimhole microhole < ~ 3” Fig. 1. Bore size illustration compares conventional bottom hole well diameters to slimhole and microhole sizes to emphasize the potential for materials and equipment size reduction through the use of microholes

10 75 – 80 % of CT work today reclamation of „life wells“ Intervention
Well repair Service work  only little Grass Root Drilling

11 Coil Tubing Anwendungen
Remedial Cementing Drilling/ Milling Logging Perforating Stimulation Sand Control Fishing Fluid Displacement Wellbore Cleanout Running Packers Setting/Retrieving Bridge Plugs

12 CT reduziert Bohrkosten + Platzbedarf + Einwirkungen auf die Umwelt
1 ha 1/3 ha No connections – faster (2-3x) – non stop circulation safer (no personal directly over the hole) – straight drilling Work on „life wells“ – less personal – lower cost Normale Rigs 120 m / hr (SCR  small conventional rigs) CT bis zu 420 m / hr Im Durchschnitt bohrt CT doppelt so schnell (z.B. in Canada in den Gasfeldern, CBM) Kosteneinsparnis für den Operator 15% bis 40 % Penetration rates are much faster • Conventional rigs 120m (394 ft)/hr. • Coil has attained rates of penetration up to 420m (1378 ft)/hr. • Coil can out drill conventional 2-1, proven in Canadian shallow gas • Cost savings to operator 15% to 50% • Safety and Efficiency • Attracts and keeps crews (safer and high tech rigs) • Trips on average 3 times faster

13 Coiled Tubing drill rigs worldwide (total 1
Coiled Tubing drill rigs worldwide (total 1.881) January 2011 (source: ICOTA) 300 100 180 131 Coiled Tubing Stats... Coiled Tubing Rig Count from ICOTA website Updated January 18, Active CT units assembled by Les Tomlin of Trican. Some international figures could not be validated

14 jointed pipe + CT drilling cost / foot for drilling + completion in the lower 48 + AL)
CT: appr. 1/3 (15-40 %) cheaper 2-3 x faster Summary – Land Wells As a rule of thumb, as well depth increases, the per foot cost of drilling rises logarithmically. The following chart indicates the range in drilling costs for all land wells drilled in the US – for example, wells drilled in the US between the depths of 5000’ and 10,000’ cost between $50 per foot and $80 per foot to drill and complete: Please note that the average per foot cost of drilling a shallow hole is about the same as the average per foot cost to drill a 5-10,000’ hole. Rig mobilization charges for a 2000’ hole are about the same as for a 7500’ hole, but the shallower hole has fewer feet to distribute the costs over. As a result, the cost per foot for a shallow hole is about the same as for a medium depth well in the US. Cost of Drilling Source: Joint Association Survey and Spears & Associates Land Drilling Cost Range

15 drilling unconventional gas in E. Colorado + W. Kansas, USA since 2005
First Highly Efficient Hybrid CT Rig Built and Operating in the USA First Highly Efficient Hybrid CT Rig Built and Operating on U.S. Soil #3. DRILLING SHALLOW RE-ENTRY WELLS Description of application Entering an existing well and drilling laterally from the wellbore, primarily from land wells in marginally economic fields. This may include a single lateral or multiple laterals. Additionally, re-entry may involve simply drilling straight down through the bottom of the casing and continuing the hole vertically. Shallow is defined as 6000’ or less and the hole size is less than 3-1/2”. Current demand for the service

16 savings appr. 25-35 % per well
900 m Niobrara Gas well drilled in 19 hrs. (incl. MIRU, drilling, logging, setting casing, RDMO) Max. depth down to 1000 Meter Gas Tech-nology Inst. (GTI) CO + KS, USA savings appr % per well Results To Date > 23 Project Wells Drilled > 40,000 Feet of 4 ¾ ” Hole Drilled – Wells in Western Kansas and Colorado – Deepest = 3100’ > 3000 Ft. Niobrara Wells Drilled in 19 Hours – Includes MIRU, Drilling, Logging, Setting Casing, RDMO > Cost Savings vs. Conventional Drilling = 29% > Environmental Advantages – Average Drilling Location Size = .1 Acre – Average Pit Size = 3’ x 6’x 6’ for Cuttings – In Most Cases – Zero Road Building

17 900 m Niobrara Gas well drilled in 19 hrs. (incl
900 m Niobrara Gas well drilled in 19 hrs. (incl. MIRU, drilling, logging, setting casing, RDMO) esults To Date > 23 Project Wells Drilled > 40,000 Feet of 4 ¾ ” Hole Drilled – Wells in Western Kansas and Colorado – Deepest = 3100’ > 3000 Ft. Niobrara Wells Drilled in 19 Hours – Includes MIRU, Drilling, Logging, Setting Casing, RDMO > Cost Savings vs. Conventional Drilling = 29% > Environmental Advantages – Average Drilling Location Size = .1 Acre – Average Pit Size = 3’ x 6’x 6’ for Cuttings – In Most Cases – Zero Road Building ROP range appr. 1 – 2,5 m/min

18 CT + DTH water hammer drilling in hard rock (geothermal)
last decade : CT + DTH water hammer drilling in Norway and Iceland up to m depth 2 3/8“ coil up to 5“ hole W-100 hammer Griffith 3 3/4” motor drilling in hard gneiss > 200 MPa 26 l/sec @ 62 °C water

19 submersible (deep water) intervention or seafloor CT drilling unit (SSCTDU) (soure : ICOTA, Shell Oil)

20 Lochausbau bis 5000 m Tiefe 20 m 300 m 1000 m Mögliches Ziel:
Rig Concept. Los Alamos developed a basic microdrilling rig concept to achieve a readily automated drilling system that simplifies the more complicated and labor-intensive aspects of conventional, oil-field drilling, and reduces the size of the rig required for drilling and casing a microbore. The coiled-tubing-deployed drill was selected so that the insertion of a hard-wire, bottom-hole dataacquisition and control telemetry cable inside the drill stem was possible. Figure 3 shows an early concept. In order to support directional drilling and to minimize the bottomhole drilling assembly (BHDA) assembly/disassembly time during trips, weight-on-bit is applied by slack-off of the support of the tubing weight in deep holes, or by surface thrust on the tubing in shallow holes. A relatively large-tubing outside-diameter-(OD)-to-bore-diameter ratio increases the allowable bit thrust that can be applied (Qui, Miska, and Volk, 1998) before buckling occurs. A two-thirds ratio, as opposed to a more traditional one-half ratio in use for conventional drilling systems, achieves an optimum hydraulic power transport to the BHDA based on simple power law simulation of the circulating flow loop (Fig. 4). A continuous, constant OD-tubing drill-stem and short BHDA simplify the blowoutpressure control equipment (BOPE) and reduces the substructure height. The required mast height for handling the BHDA components is dictated by the maximum anticipated drilling-motor length since these are likely to be the longest components that will need to be inserted. BHDA Concept. The basic drilling assembly includes the following components listed from the bit up to the coiled tubing: 1. A PDC or diamond rotary bit. The bit is designed for high rotary speed, low weight-on-bit drilling. Rotary percussion bits will be needed to penetrate hard formations, and conglomerates with hard spots (Melamed et al., 2000). 2. An instrumented, near-bit sub. The sub includes measure-while-drilling (MWD) inclination and azimuth position sensors, and axial and torsional stress sensors to determine weight-on-bit and torque in the sub housing. The sub includes an electric power source or converter and a two-way radio for telemetry to the main instrument sub located between the motor and vibra-tion isolation sub. An advanced system would include a presently undefined, mechanical positioning system to make the near-bit directional adjustments and a near-bit logging-while-drilling (LWD) subassembly. Advanced second generation MWD measurements would include both the steady state and high frequency dynamic drilling data for downhole diagnostics and control. 1,5“ Loch Ø 5000 m mit 1“ Ø CT

21 3“ Borehole Daten + Transfer LWD + Geologie Bohrparameter
Lage + Geologie Hydr. Antrieb Current Status - Field Testing – BP America, Alaska – Extended horizontal section (planned 4,000 feet) – Start Date: Delayed due to rig work over issues at current well. Projected to start in 5 days. – 2 x RSM, 1 x MPR on rig location 􀂃 2nd MPR will be ready to ship March 27th BAker Hughes Inteq Steuern + Vortrieb Richtung Traktor fehlt hier

22 CT (deep) drilling  challenges
- avoid buckling + helical lock up  HTT concept to move coil („earth worm“) - avoid peak forces underneath the injector head DTH fluid hammer vibrations help (horizontal) move of coil (Baker et. al.) energy to bit : pressure + flow is transformed in BHA to crush rock, very low axial force needed „Monobore“ concept Complete drilling system source: university of Hannover) source: university of Hannover)

23 expandable openhole liner system (jointed pipe) (courtesy of Weatherford)

24 Problems with steel coiled tubing plastic deformation - corrosion - wear

25 Problems with steel Coiled Tubing

26 CT drilling innovation - new coil materials composites / eng. plastics
more flexibel  larger Ø possible < 50 % lighter weight in air excellent spoolability “earth worm” principle possible fatigue resistant: > cycles without failure Chemically resistant low inner surface roughness: less pressure drop, improved flow allowing most chemicals and acids to be pumped. the weight to strength ratio of composite is much better than steel: for a typical TCP coil weight is 50 % less than steel coil. Thus, the reel can be lighter and cheaper as well. (up to 80 % lower than steel) in combination with lower friction coefficients, strongly reduce the surface weight when pulling out of hole (POOH). Simulations have shown typical pull reductions of more than 50%. TCP has excellent fatigue life. Testing has proven up to bending cycles without any strength or stiffness reduction. reducing pressure drop and pumping power.

27 CT Drilling System at GZB, Bochum versatile CT rig with DTH fluid hammer on (flexible) coil

28 Neue Technologien Hybrid Drilling Rig
Kombiniert konventionelles Bohren mit Coil Tubing Injector Top Drive Injector & Gooseneck Top Drive

29 -Acceptance of the public-
Neue Technologien Urbanisation/ Verstädterung Mehr stadtnahe Bohrungen  Geothermieprojekte Bohrturmtransport vereinfacht durch Bausteinprinzip ISO Geringe Lärm-/Sichtbelästigung  kleiner Footprint Hohe Mobilität schnelles Auf- und Abbauen Higher Degree of Automation  Pipe Handling Systems „Good looking Rigs“ -Acceptance of the public-

30 Neue Technologien Rotary Steerable Systems(RSS):
Erlaubt den Bohrstrang beim Richtbohren zu drehen Kein Bohrmotor für das Richtbohren nötig Üblich für extrem verlängerte oder horizontale Bohrlöcher  Reibungskoeffizient geringer bei Rotation Variable Build Up Rates möglich verbessertes Richtbohren

31 Neue Technologien Casing Drilling:
Konventioneller Bohrstrang wird gegen die Rohrtour getauscht Bohrloch wird gleichzeitig erbohrt und eingehüllt Eliminierung von Problemzonen  Plaster Effect Verringerter Surface Casing Diameter Geringere Bohrkosten

32 BHA for a Liner drilling System
Liner is being pulled down as a drill string with bit is doing the penetration. At TD the inner BHA is retrieved to surface (  more like a „dual rod drilling“ system )

33 Retractable Bit Method
Wireline retrievable BHA Exterior Casing Components casing transmits mechanical and hydraulic energy to the bit. BHA retrieved with wireline

34 Drillable Bit drillable bit may be lost (expendable) or retrieved.
Drillable Bit or Drill Shoe drillable bit may be lost (expendable) or retrieved. Bit for next section is run through the old shoe (+ bit).

35 Neue Technologien : Casing Drilling
Casing Drilling Bits

36 Neue Technologien Ten reasons to use Casing Drilling
Reduces or eliminates drill pipe or wireline trip times Gets casing to design depth through problem formations Reduces potential requirement of contingency casing Reduces the initial surface casing size, because it can go deeper Drills straighter holes reducing torque, drag and cleaning problems due to spiraling Reduces open hole exposure time and associated drilling problems Reduces borehole exposure to formation and completion damage Reduces or eliminates well control issues of DP tripping Simplifies well architecture Optimizes reservoir production

37 Neue Technologien Expandable Casing/ Liner (SET)
Verringerung des Bohrlochdiameters Reduzierung der Bohrkosten Verbesserung der Bohrlochstabilität Optimal für Bohrungen mit Trouble Zones mehrere Intermediate Casing Kein Underreaming nötig Benutzung von anschwellenden Elastomeren Verzicht auf Zement “With a smaller hole size, drilling time is significantly faster in addition using less pipe (steel tonnage), mud, and producing fewer cuttings.”

38 Neue Technologien Expandable Liner

39 Neue Technologien Expandable Liner Bohren
Liner am Bohrstrang in das Bohrloch fahren Strang zementieren Liner expandieren Linerhanger expandieren Shoe aufbohren


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